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What is Hybridization of orbitals? Does it take place in all non metals? Does it take place in chlorine???? please give me detailed information about it

What is Hybridization of orbitals?


Does it take place in all non metals?


Does it take place in chlorine????


 please give me detailed information about it

Grade:10

2 Answers

SAGAR SINGH - IIT DELHI
879 Points
9 years ago

If the four hydrogen atoms in a methane molecule (CH4) were bound to the three 2p orbitals and the 2s orbital of the carbon atom, the H-C-H bond angles would be 90o for 3 of the hydrogen atoms and the 4th hydrogen atom would be at 135o from the others. Experimental evidence has shown that the bond angles in methane are not arranged that way but are 109.5o giving the overall shape of a tetrahedron. The tetrahedral structure makes much more sense in that hydrogen atoms would naturally repel each other due to their negative electron clouds and form this shape. If you think electron-electron repulsion isn't significant, try walking through a wall! There is plenty of space for your nuclei to pass through the nuclei of the wall material but ouch, it just doesn't work that way.

Experimental evidence has also shown that the H-N-H bond angles in ammonia (NH3) are 107o and the H-O-H bond angles in water are 105o. It is clear from these bond angles that the non-bonding pairs of electrons occupy a reasonable amount of space and are pushing the hydrogen atoms closer together compared to the angles found in methane.

The valence shell electron-pair repulsion model (VESPR) was devised to account for these molecular shapes. In this model, atoms and pairs of electrons will be arranged to minimize the repulsion of these atoms and pairs of electrons. Since the non-bonded electron pairs are held somewhat closer to the nucleus than the attached hydrogen atoms, they tend to crowd the hydrogen atoms. Thus ammonia exists as a distorted tetrahedron (trigonal pyramidal) rather than a trigonal plane and water also exists as a distorted tetrahedron (bent) rather than a linear molecule with the hydrogen atoms at a 180o bond angle.

This concept proposes that since the attached groups are not at the angles of the p orbitals and their atomic orbitals would not have maximum overlap (to form strong bonds) the s and p orbitals will be hybridized to match the bond angles of the attached groups.

sushant singh
66 Points
9 years ago

Chemist Linus Pauling first developed the hybridisation theory in order to explain the structure of molecules such as methane (CH4).This concept was developed for such simple chemical systems, but the approach was later applied more widely, and today it is considered an effective heuristic for rationalizing the structures of organic compounds.
Hybridisation theory is not as practical for quantitative calculations as molecular orbital theory. Problems with hybridisation are especially notable when the d orbitals are involved in bonding, as in coordination chemistry and organometallic chemistry. Although hybridisation schemes in transition metal chemistry can be used, they are not generally as accurate.

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