 # Revision Notes on Force and Laws of Motion

CBSE Science revision notes for Class 9 Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion are given on this page. These notes are created by Science experts at askIITians, based on the latest CBSE syllabus for Class 9 Science. You can read these free revision notes online and revise all the concepts of the chapter in less than 30 minutes. However, if you are studying this chapter for the first time, we recommend that you study the notes at your own pace and memorise the concepts first.

Chapter 9 of Class 9 Science Force and Laws of Motion includes important fundamental concepts of Physics such as force, types of forces and the laws of motion. All these topics are important from the exam point of view and competitive exams as well. Let us see what is included in CBSE Class 9 revision notes for Force and Laws of Motion.

## What is a force?

To move a stationary object from one place to another, we need to put some effort. This effort is known as force. For Example, a push, a hit or a pull. Fig.1- How does an object move

Whenever we push or pull an object a force acts upon them and makes them move from one place to another. Hence, the force can do the following to stationary objects –

• initiate motion in a motionless object
• change (increase or decrease) the velocity of the moving object
• alter the direction of a moving object
• change the shape and size of an object Fig.2 - Effects of Force

## Balanced and Unbalanced Forces

Balanced Forces – When equal amounts of forces are applied to an object from different directions such that they cancel out each other, such forces are known as balanced forces

• Balanced forces do not change the state of rest or motion of an object.
• Balanced forces may change the shape and size of an object. Fig.3- Balanced Forces

Unbalanced Force – When forces applied to an object are of different magnitude (or not in opposite directions to cancel out each other), such forces are unbalanced forces.

• Unbalanced forces can alter the state of rest or motion of an object.
• Unbalanced forces can cause acceleration in an object.
• Unbalanced forces can change the shape and size of an object. Fig.4 – Unbalanced Forces

## What is the force of friction?

It is a force extended when two surfaces are in contact with each other. It always acts in a direction opposite to the direction of motion of the object. Fig. 5 – The force of Friction

## First Law of Motion

Galileo’s Observation

• He observed the motion of objects on an inclined plane.
• When marble is rolled down an inclined plane its velocity increases.

Galileo’s Arguments

• When marble is rolled down from the left – It will go up on the opposite side up to the same height at which it is dropped down. Fig 6 - Galileo’s Arguments

• If the inclination of planes is equal – The marble would travel equal distances while climbing up as travelled while rolling down. Fig 7 - Galileo’s Arguments

• If we decrease the angle of inclination of the right plane – The marble would travel further until it reaches its original height. Fig 8 - Galileo’s Arguments

• If the right side plane is made flat – Marble would travel forever to achieve the same height. Fig 9 - Galileo’s Arguments

Galileo's Inference

• We need an unbalanced force to change the motion of the marble but no force is required when the marble is moving uniformly.
• In other words, objects move at a constant speed if no force acts upon them.

## The First Law of Motion or The Law of Inertia

Whether an object is moving uniformly on a straight path or is at rest, its state would not change until and unless an external force is applied to it. Fig 10 - Newton’s First Law of Motion

Hence, we can say that objects oppose a change in their state of motion or rest. This tendency of objects to remain in the state of rest or to keep moving uniformly is called Inertia.

Examples of Inertia

• We fall back when a vehicle starts moving in the forward direction because our body is in the rest state and it opposes the motion of the vehicle. Fig 11 - Example of Inertia

• We fall forward when brakes are applied in a car because our body is opposite the change of state of motion to rest. Fig 12 - Example of Inertia

Inertia and Mass

• The inertia of an object is dependent upon its mass.
• Lighter objects have less inertia, that is, they can easily change their state of rest or motion.
• Heavier objects have large inertia and therefore they show more resistance.
• Hence ‘Mass’ is called a measure of the inertia of an object.

Consider the image given below; it is easier for a person to push the empty bucket rather than the one that is filled with sand. This is because the mass of an empty bucket is less than that of the bucket filled with sand. Fig 13 - Inertia and Mass

## The Second Law of Motion

• The impact produced by a moving object depends upon its mass and velocity.
• For Example, a small bullet fired at a high velocity can kill a person.
• Momentum – The product of mass and velocity is called Momentum.
• It is a vector quantity. Its direction is the same as that of the object’s velocity.
• Denoted by – p
• SI unit – kg metre per second
• p = mv, where m is the mass of the object and v is the velocity of the object

The momentum of a stationary object –

Let the mass of a stationary object be ‘m’,

Let the velocity of a stationary object be ‘v’,

The stationary object has no velocity, so v = 0,

Therefore, p = m*v = m*0 = 0

So, the momentum of a stationary object is zero.

• We know that the velocity of an object can be changed by applying an unbalanced force to it. Similarly, the momentum of an object can change by applying an unbalanced force.
• According to the second law of motion The rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the applied unbalanced force on the object in the direction of the force.

For Example –

A cricketer when catches a ball pulls his hands in the backward direction to give some time to decrease the velocity of the ball. As the acceleration of the ball decreases the force exerted on catching the moving ball also decreases. If the cricketer would try to stop a moving ball suddenly he would have to apply a larger force. Fig 14 - Application of the Second Law of Motion

Mathematical Formulation of the Second Law of Motion

Based on the definition of the second law of motion, we can infer that - Fig 15 - Mathematical Formula of the Second Law of Motion

Therefore, with help of the second law of motion, we can evaluate the amount of force that is being exerted on any object. From the formula stated above, we can see that the force is directly proportional to acceleration. So the acceleration of an object can change depending upon the change in force applied.

Force = ma

SI Unit: kg-ms-2 or N (Newton)

## The Third Law of Motion

Action and Reaction Forces

Two forces acting from opposite directions are called Action and Reaction Forces.

For Example, a ball when it hits the ground (action) bounces back with a certain force reaction. Fig. 16 - Action and Reaction Forces

The Third Law of Motion states that –

• When an object exerts a force on another object, the second object instantly exerts a force back onto the first object. These forces are always equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. These forces always act on two different objects.
• Or in other words, every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
• The magnitudes of forces acting upon the objects are the same but the acceleration produced in them may or may not be the same because the objects can differ in masses.
• For Example, when a bullet is fired from a gun, the gun only moves a little backwards (recoils) while the bullet can travel a large distance. This is because of the difference in the mass of the bullet and the gun. Fig 17 - Application of the Third Law of Motion

## Conservation of Momentum

As per the law of conservation of momentum, the sum of momenta of two objects before the collision and after collision remains the same given that no external unbalanced force acts upon them. In another way, collision conserves the total momentum of two objects. Fig 18 - Conservation of Momentum

Consider the figure given above. Two balls A and B having certain initial velocities collide with each other. Conditions before the collision-

• There is no unbalanced force acting upon them
• The initial velocity of A is greater than the initial velocity of B

The figure below explains how the momentum of the balls is conserved after the collision. Fig.19 – Conservation of Momentum

• They are considered the fundamental laws in physics.
• They are based on observations and experiments.
• They cannot be proved but can be verified or disproved with the help of experiments.
• A single experiment is enough to disprove a law, while a single experiment is not enough to prove the same.
• It requires a large number of experiments to prove the law.
• The law of conservation of momentum was formulated 300 years ago.
• There is no single situation present until now that disproves this law.
• Other laws of conservation are – the law of conservation of energy, the law of conservation of angular momentum, the law of conservation of charge.

## Force and Laws of Motion Revision Notes FAQs

1. What are the topics covered in CBSE Class 9 Science Revision Notes for Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion?

CBSE free revision notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion by askIITians include all the topics of the chapter such as the concept of force, laws of motion, inertia, momentum, acceleration, conservation of momentum.

1. How to study CBSE Class 9 Chapter 9 Force and Laws of Motion to get full marks?
• Read the NCERT chapter carefully and understand the concepts given in it.
• Refer to our revision notes to memorise the definitions and important points related to the chapter.
• Practice all the diagrams and learn all definitions properly.
• Make sure you remember all the important formulae, use flashcards if you face problems in learning them.
• Refer to our other free study resources for Class 9 Science such as mind maps, previous year questions, practise worksheets and more.

1. Why should I study CBSE Class 9 Science revision notes for Force and Laws of Motion from the askIITians website?

• The notes are based on the latest CBSE syllabus.
• The notes cover all the concepts introduced in the chapter.
• The notes are organised point-wise and include proper diagrams for your better understanding.
• You can read the notes whenever you want and revise the chapter quickly.

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