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All the difference between prokarotic and eukaryotic cell from basic to high level ?

All the difference between prokarotic and eukaryotic cell from basic to high level ?

Grade:12th pass

1 Answers

Arun
25763 Points
2 years ago

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

Features Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Size Size of cell is 1-2µm by 1-4µm or less. Greater than 5 µm in diameter.
Cell type Mostly unicellular(some cyanobacteria may be multicellular). Mostly multicellular.
Nucleus True nucleus is absent. Nucleus lack nuclear membrane and nucleolus. Such nucleus is called nucleoid. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus are present.
Chromosome Usually single circular without histones. Multiple linear with histones.
Genes Expressed in groups called operons. Expressed individually.
Zygote Merozygotic (partially diploid). Diploid.
Cell division Binary fission of budding Involves mitosis.
Sexual reproduction No meiosis. Transfer of DNA only. Involves meiosis.
Permeability of nuclear membrane Absent. Selective.
Cytoplasmic streaming Absent Present
Cytoskeleton Absent Present
Pinocytosis Absent Present
Gas vacuoles Can be present Absent
Mesosome Present. Performs the function of Golgi bodies and mitochondria and also help in the separation of chromosome during cell division. Absent
Ribosome Smaller size 70S, distributed in the cytoplasm. Larger size 80s, found on membranes as in endoplasmic reticulum; 70s present in organelles such as chloroplast and mitochondria.
Mitochondria Absent Present
Chloroplast Absent Present
Endoplasmic Reticulum Absent Present
Golgi structure Absent Present
Membrane bound vacuoles Absent Present
Lysosomes and peroxisomes Absent Present
Microtubules Absent or rare Present
Flagella Simple structure composed of protein, flagellin. Complex with 9+2 structure of tubulin and other protein.
Plasma membrane Generally lack sterol and no carbohydrate.

 

Contain part of respiration and in some photosynthetic machinery.

Sterol and carbohydrate is present that serve as receptors.
Do not carry out respiration and photosynthesis.
Glycocalyx Present as a capsule or slime layer. Present in some cells that lack cell wall.
Cell wall Usually present. Chemically complex (typical bacterial cell wall includes peptidoglycan). When present, chemically simple (includes cellulose and chitin).
Extrachromosomal plasmid Present. Nonessential prokaryotic genes are encoded on extra chromosomal plasmid. Absent
Transcription and translation Occur simultaneously. Transcription occurs in nucleus and then translation occurs in cytoplasm.
Respiration Many strict anaerobes. All aerobic, but some facultative anaerobes by secondary modification.
Photosynthetic enzymes Bound to plasma membrane as composite chromatophores. Enzymes packed in plastids bound by membrane.
Nitrogen fixation Some possess this ability. None possess this ability.
Metabolic mechanism Wide variation Glycolysis, electron transport chain, Krebs cycle.
Duration of cell cycle Short, takes 20-60 minutes to complete. Long, takes 12-24 hours to complete.
DNA base ratio as mol% of Guanine+ Cytosine (G+C %) 28-73 About 40

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