explain the lewis dot structure of element and compound

explain the lewis dot structure of element and compound 


1 Answers

askIITians Faculty 747 Points
9 years ago
The structure of carbon and its compound can be expressed using the Lewis-dot structure This system identifies how the atoms that compose a molecule of a specific compound are attached (bonded) to one another and (to some extent) oriented in space.An atom is indicated by its symbol with a number of dots representing the number of valency electrons e.g Hydrogen would be H with a single dot, Carbon would be a C with four dots. When two valency electrons are paired they are represented by two adjacent dots. Paired valency electrons are not normally available for forming bonds with other atoms.

Lewis diagrams are useful for visualizing both ionic and covalent bonds

Ionic Bonding

In ionic bonding one element is much more electronegative then another element. In other words, the electronegative atom wants an electron much more than the other element; thus, the element with a positive charge loses electron and the element with the negative charge gains an electron. These two elements then become attracted to each other because of Coulomb’s Law which states that there is electrostatic interaction between particles that are electrically charged, in this case the electrons describes the charge of the atom. The atom that loses electrons is electron deficient; thus, the atomic charge will be positive. The atom that gains electrons has excess of electrons; thus, the atomic charge will be negative. This attraction between the elements brings them together to form an ionic bond.

Covalent Bonding

In covalent bonding the elements share electrons equally, i.e. both the atoms have an equal share of electrons in the bond. This sharing of electrons creates a bond that is known as a covalent bond. It is thought that a covalent bond is equal, but in nature, the bond is never equal. The electronegativity differs between all the elements and the more electronegative the atom, it has a higher tendency to gain electrons; however, because the bond is formed by sharing electrons, the atom cannot "possess" an electron. So, the only way for the more electronegative atom to take the "advantage" of an electron is by unequal sharing of electrons. The compounds that share electrons unequally are called polar compounds and the process is called polarity. An example of a polar compound is water (H2O).

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