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What is lanthanoid contraction? What are the consequences of lanthanoid contraction?

What is lanthanoid contraction? What are the consequences of lanthanoid contraction?

Grade:9

4 Answers

sumit kumar
askIITians Faculty 13 Points
6 years ago

Lanthanide Contraction: The steady decrease in the size of lanthanide ions (M3+) with the increase in atomic no. is called lanthanide contraction.

Causes:As we move down the group from left to right in a lanthanide series, the atomic no. increases and for every proton in the nucleus the extra electron goes to 4f orbital. The 4f orbital is too diffused to shield the nucleus effectively, thus there is a gradual increase in the effective nuclear charge experienced by the outer electrons. Consequently , the attraction of the nucleus for the electrons in the outermost shell increases with the increase of atomic number, thus size decreases.

Consequence of Lanthanide Contraction:

Separation of Lanthanides:Due to the similar sizes of the lanthanides, it is difficult to separate them but due to lanthanide contraction their properties slightly vary (such as ability to form complexes). The variation in the properties is utilized to separate them.

Basic Strength of Hydroxide: Due to the lanthanide contraction, size of M3+ions decreases and there is increase in covalent character in M–OH and hence basic character decreases.

Similarity of second and third transition series:The atomic radii of second row transition elements are almost similar to those of the third row transition elements because the increase in size on moving down the group from second to third transition elements is cancelled by the decrease in size due to the lanthanide contraction

Thanks & Regards

Sumit Kumar

askIITians Faculty

Aman Gond
11 Points
3 years ago
The Lanthanide Contraction is caused by a poor shielding effect of the 4f electrons. Gd because as atomic number increases, the atomic radius decreases. Yb because it has a larger atomic number.
Akil S
30 Points
2 years ago

Lanthanide Contraction: The steady decrease in the size of lanthanide ions (M3+) with the increase in atomic no. is called lanthanide contraction.

Causes:As we move down the group from left to right in a lanthanide series, the atomic no. increases and for every proton in the nucleus the extra electron goes to 4f orbital. The 4f orbital is too diffused to shield the nucleus effectively, thus there is a gradual increase in the effective nuclear charge experienced by the outer electrons. Consequently , the attraction of the nucleus for the electrons in the outermost shell increases with the increase of atomic number, thus size decreases.

Consequence of Lanthanide Contraction:

Separation of Lanthanides:Due to the similar sizes of the lanthanides, it is difficult to separate them but due to lanthanide contraction their properties slightly vary (such as ability to form complexes). The variation in the properties is utilized to separate them.

Basic Strength of Hydroxide: Due to the lanthanide contraction, size of M3+ions decreases and there is increase in covalent character in M–OH and hence basic character decreases.

Similarity of second and third transition series:The atomic radii of second row transition elements are almost similar to those of the third row transition elements because the increase in size on moving down the group from second to third transition elements is cancelled by the decrease in size due to the lanthanide contraction

Rishi Sharma
askIITians Faculty 646 Points
10 months ago
Dear Student,
Please find below the solution to your problem.

Lanthanide Contraction:
The steady decrease in the size of lanthanide ions (M3+) with the increase in atomic no. is called lanthanide contraction.

Causes:
As we move down the group from left to right in a lanthanide series, the atomic no. increases and for every proton in the nucleus the extra electron goes to 4f orbital.
The 4f orbital is too diffused to shield the nucleus effectively, thus there is a gradual increase in the effective nuclear charge experienced by the outer electrons. Consequently , the attraction of the nucleus for the electrons in the outermost shell increases with the increase of atomic number, thus size decreases.

Consequence of Lanthanide Contraction:
Separation of Lanthanides:
Due to the similar sizes of the lanthanides, it is difficult to separate them but due to lanthanide contraction their properties slightly vary (such as ability to form complexes). The variation in the properties is utilized to separate them.
Basic Strength of Hydroxide:
Due to the lanthanide contraction, size of M3+ions decreases and there is increase in covalent character in M–OH and hence basic character decreases.

Similarity of second and third transition series:
The atomic radii of second row transition elements are almost similar to those of the third row transition elements because the increase in size on moving down the group from second to third transition elements is cancelled by the decrease in size due to the lanthanide contraction

Thanks and Regards

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