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Grade: 11


What are the different applications of resonance and hyperconjugation???

3 years ago

Answers : (1)

sagar kumar
99 Points


Resonance is a way of representing the delocalized electrons within a molecule with different structures when a single lewis formula is not enough to express the bonding of electrons.

There are various structures that can be made from the actual molecular structure; the average structure between canonical forms that explains the experimental observations are called as resonance hybrid. Point that should be noted is that these structures vary only in respect of the position of the electrons not in the position of nuclei.


There is an extension in the molecular orbital when there is an interaction between sigma bond and empty/partially filled π-orbitals. This results in hyperconjugation which increases the stability. Bond length, dipole moments and heat of formation of molecules is affected due to hyperconjugation.
Resonance can be employed to maintain AC circuit oscillations at a constant frequency, just as a pendulum can be used to maintain constant oscillation speed in a timekeeping mechanism. ... Circuits designed to screen certain frequencies out of a mix of different frequencies are called filters.

Applications of hyperconjugation

         (1) Stability of alkenes : Hyperconjugation explains the stability of certain alkenes over other alkenes.

         Stability of alkenes  ∝  Number of alpha hydrogens  ∝  Number of resonating structures

         (2) Carbon-carbon double bond size in alkenes : As we know that the more is the number of resonating structures, the more will be single bond character in carbon-carbon double bond.

         (3) Durability of alkyl carbocations : Stability of alkyl carbocations ∝  number of resonating structures µ number of alpha hydrogens.

         (4) Stability of alkyl free radicals : Stability of alkyl free radicals can be explained by hyperconjugation. Stability relays on the number of resonating structures.

         (5) Electron releasing (or donating) power of R in alkyl benzene : CH3- (or alkyl group) is +R group, ortho-para directing set and activating set for electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction because of the hyperconjugation.The electron donating power of alkyl group will depends on the number of resonating structures, this relays on the number of hydrogens present on a-carbon. The electron releasing power of some groups are as follows,Electron donating power in descending order due to the hyperconjugation.

(6) Heat of hydrogenation : Hyperconjugation decreases the heat of hydrogenation.

         (7) Dipole moment : Since hyperconjugation affects the development of charges, it also affects the dipole moment in the molecule.

The increase in dipole moment, when hydrogen of formaldehyde (μ = 2.72D) is replaced by methyl group, i.e., acetaldehyde (μ = 2.72D) can be tends to hyperconjugation, which tends to development of charges.

         (8) Orienting influence of alkyl group in o,p-positions and of -CCl3 group in m-position : Ortho-para directing property of methyl group in toluene is partly due to  effect and partly due to hyperconjugation.

3 years ago
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