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Grade:

                        

Explain debey huckel onsagers law of the strong electrolytes

6 years ago

Answers : (1)

Aarti Gupta
askIITians Faculty
300 Points
							Debye–Hückel limiting  law that describes the behavior of strong electrolytes. In explaining  the  non-ideal  behavior  of  strong  electrolytes,  his  mathematical treatment assumes that each ion is surrounded by an ionic  cloud  of  oppositely  charged  ions,  which  retards  the movement of ions in the medium. The theory not only provides a method for calculation of activity coefficients, but has also helped, among other things, in our understanding of diffusion in  ionic  media,  change  in  the  rate  of  ionic  reactions  upon addition of salts,  and biochemical reactions.
Debye and Hückel modified their theory in 1926 and their theory was further modified by Onsager. All the postulates of the original theory were retained. In addition it was assumed that the electric field causes the charge cloud to be distorted away from spherical symmetry. After taking this into account, together with the specific requirements of moving ions, such as viscosity and electrophoretic effects, Onsager was able to derive a theoretical expression to account for the empirical relation known as Kohlraush's law for the molar conductivity, ?m.
\Lambda_m =\Lambda_m^0-K\sqrt{c}

\Lambda_m^0 is known as the limiting molar conductivity, K is an empirical constant and c is the electrolyte concentration Limiting here means "at the limit of the infinite dilution"). Onsager's expression is

\Lambda_m =\Lambda_m^0-(A+B\Lambda_m^0 )\sqrt{c}

where A and B are constants that depend only on known quantities such as temperature, the charges on the ions and the dielectric constant and viscosity of the solvent. This is known as the Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation. However, this equation only applies to very dilute solutions.

Thanks & Regard

Aarti Gupta

askiitians Faculty
6 years ago
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