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What is inductive effect

What is inductive effect

Grade:upto college level

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Aditi Chauhan
askIITians Faculty 396 Points
8 years ago
In chemistry and physics, the `Inductive Effect` is an experimentally observable effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule. The permanent dipole induced in one bond by another is called inductive effect. The electron cloud in a s-bond between two unlike atoms is not uniform and is slightly displaced towards the more electronegative of the two atoms. This causes a permanent state of bond polarization, where the more electronegative atom has a slight negative charge (d–) and the other atom has a slight positive charge (d+). If the electronegative atom is then joined to a chain of atoms, usually carbon, the positive charge is relayed to the other atoms in the chain. This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect, also known as the -I effect. Some groups, such as the alkyl group are less electron-withdrawing than hydrogen and are therefore considered as electron-releasing. This is electron releasing character and is indicated by the +I effect. In short, alkyl groups tend to give electrons, leading to induction effect. As the induced change in polarity is less than the original polarity, the inductive effect rapidly dies out. Therefore, the effect is significant only over a short distance. The inductive effect is permanent but feeble, as it involves the shift of strongly held s-bond electrons, and other stronger factors may overshadow this effect. Relative inductive effects have been experimentally measured with reference to hydrogen: (Decreasing order of - I effect or increasing order of + I effect) —NR3 > —NO2 > —SO2R > —CN > —COOH > —F > —Cl > —Br > —I > —OR > —COR > —OH > —C6H5 > —CH=CH2 > —H Also the inductive effect is dependent on the distance between the substituent group and the main group that react. That is, as the distance of the substituent group increases the Inductive effect weakens or decreases.

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