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please tell me the answer of question starting with..CIRCLE REPRESENTS... there is an attachment for the question please tell me the criteria how to find it??

please tell me the answer of question starting with..CIRCLE REPRESENTS...
there is an attachment for the question
please tell me the criteria how to find it??

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Grade:12

1 Answers

Harishwar IIT Roorkee
askIITians Faculty 50 Points
6 years ago
In amines, there is a lone pair of electrons on nitrogen. The tendency of nitrogen to share these electrons with acids is responsible for the basic character of amines.Thus the basic character of aliphatic amines should increase with increase of alkyl substitution. In the gasphase, the basic trend in nature is as expected. An electron releasing group present in an aromatic amine ring especially in ortho / para position will stabilize the ammonium cation formed after the protonation of amine and hence increases the basic strength of aromatic amine.Electrons withdrawing groups like (-NO2, -CN, -X etc) affect the stability of an aromatic ammonium cation and decreases the basic strength of parent aromatic amine.The electron withdrawing groups decrease the availability of unshared electrons on nitrogen and thereby decrease the basic strength of aromatic amines

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