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Grade: 12
        i.) Name the main constituent of bubble gum?Ii.) Write the IUPAC of [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br
9 months ago

Answers : (2)

safe india by sonu yadav
48 Points
							
i)
Ingredient Percent (by weight) Composition Functionality Common Examples
Gum Base[2] 25-35% Although the formulation of gum bases is considered proprietary information for industry competitors, three main components make up all gum bases: resin, wax, and elastomer. Resin (ex. terpene) is the main chewable portion. Wax softens the gum. Elastomers add flexibility. The molecular composition of gum base is very similar to that of plastics and rubbers. Natural or Synthetic Ingredients (See Table 3)
Sweeteners Sugar Alcohols: 40-50%

Artificial Sweeteners: 0.05-0.5%

Bulk Polyol Sweeteners are responsible for initial sweetness, whereas intensive sweeteners are intended for prolonging the sweetness effect. Intensive Sweeteners are often encapsulated to delay the release of flavor. Bulk Polyol Sweeteners[19]:

sugar, dextrose, glucose or corn syrup, erythritol, isomalt, xylitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, lactitol

Intensive Sweeteners[20]:

aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharine, sucralose, neohesperidine, dihydrichalcone

Glycerine 2-15% To maintain moistness.  
Softener/Plasticizer 1-2% To soften gum by increasing flexibility and reducing brittleness by altering the glass transition temperature. Quantities of this additive are altered in order to balance processability and packaging speed. lecithin, hydrogenated vegetable oils, glycerol ester, lanolin, methyl ester, pentaerythritol ester, rice bran wax, stearic acid, sodium and potassium stearates
Flavors[21] 1.5-3.0% For taste and sensory appeal. Flavor components in gum exist in liquid, powder or micro-encapsulatedforms.[22] Liquid flavor incorporations are either water-soluble, oil-soluble, or water-dispersible emulsions. The oil-soluble flavors remain in the gum longer, resulting in longer lasting flavor sensations, because the gum base is hydrophobic and attracted to oil-based components. Natural or Synthetic

Ex. Food Acids are implemented to provide a sour flavor (i.e. citric, tartaric, malic, lactic, adipic, and fumaric acids)

Colors Variable For visual appeal. Natural or Synthetic
Polyol Coating[23] Variable Pellet gum’s characteristic hard outer shell is due to a polyol coating. Polyols can also be implemented as a water absorbent powder dusting in order to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of the product. These humectants bind water by establishing many hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Sorbitol

Maltitol/Isomalt

Mannitol

Starch

Gum base

Gum base is made of polymers, plasticizers, and resins. Polymers, including elastomers, are responsible for the stretchy and sticky nature of chewing gum. Plasticizers improve flexibility and reduce brittleness, contributing to the plastic and elastic nature of gum. The interactions of plasticizers within gum base are governed by solubility parameters, molecular weight, and chemical structure. Resinscompose the hydrophobic portion of the gum base, responsible for its chewiness. Although the exact ingredients and proportions used in each brand's gum base are trade secrets within the gum industry, Table 3 lists all of the natural and synthetic gum base components approved for use in the United States, demonstrating some examples of key gum base components.[2]

Table 3: Gum Base Ingredients Approved for Use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2016)[24]

Natural Ingredients Synthetic Ingredients
Sapotaceae

Chicle

Chiquibul

Crown Gum

Gutta hang kang

Massaranduba balata

Massaranduba chocolate

Nispero

Rosidinha

Venezuelan chicle

Butadiene-styrene rubber

Isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (butyl rubber)

Paraffin (via the Fischer-Tropsch process)

Petroleum wax

Petroleum wax synthetic

Polyethylene

Polyisobutylene Polyvinyl acetate

Apocynaceae

Jelutong

Leche caspi (sorva)

Pendare

Perillo

Moraceae

Leche de vaca

Niger gutta

Tunu (tuno)

Euphorbiaceae

Chilte

Natural rubber

 
 
approve my answer
9 months ago
safe india by sonu yadav
48 Points
							
​ii) PENTAAMINE SULPHATOCOBALT III BROMIDE
we can also write it small letters
pentaammine (nitrito­O) cabalt (III) bromide
approve my answer
9 months ago
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