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what is hyperconjugation and resonance

what is hyperconjugation and resonance

Grade:12

1 Answers

bhanuveer danduboyina
95 Points
9 years ago

HYPERCONJUGATION

hyperconjugation is the interaction of the electrons in a sigma bond (usually C–H or C–C) with an adjacent empty (or partially filled) non-bonding p-orbital or antibonding π orbital or filled π orbital, to give an extended molecular orbital that increases the stability of the system.[Only electrons in bonds that are β to the positively charged carbon can stabilize a carbocation by hyperconjugation.

RESONANCE

resonance or mesomerism [1] is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis formula. A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several contributing structures [2] (also called resonance structures or canonical forms).

Each contributing structure can be represented by a Lewis structure, with only an integer number of covalent bonds between each pair of atoms within the structure.[3] Several Lewis structures are used collectively to describe the actual molecular structure. However these individual contributors cannot be observed in the actual resonance-stabilized molecule; the molecule does not oscillate back and forth between the contributing structures, as might be assumed from the word "resonance". The actual structure is an approximate intermediate between the canonical forms, but its overall energy is lower than each of the contributors. This intermediate form between different contributing structures is called a resonance hybrid.[4] Contributing structures differ only in the position of electrons, not in the position of nuclei.
Resonance is a key component of valence bond theory.

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