# dear mates ,           please explain the relation betweeen the electricity and magnetism . how we can so these fields as     magnetic field along X-axis and electric field along Y-axis. (i can't expect the originating theories but some statements and equations to justify myself.)

ROSHAN MUJEEB
3 years ago
Electric current produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field can be visualized as a pattern of circular field lines surrounding a wire. One way to explore the direction of a magnetic field is with a compass, as shown by a long straight current-carrying wire in. Hall probes can determine the magnitude of the field. Another version of the right hand rule emerges from this exploration and is valid for any current segment—point the thumb in the direction of the current, and the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field loopscreated by it.[image]Magnetic Field Generated by Current: (a) Compasses placed near a long straight current-carrying wire indicate that field lines form circular loops centered on the wire. (b) Right hand rule 2 states that, if the right hand thumb points in the direction of the current, the fingers curl in the direction of the field. This rule is consistent with the field mapped for the long straight wire and is valid for any current segment.

Magnets and Magnetic Fields: A brief introduction to magnetism for introductory physics students.

Magnitude of Magnetic Field from Current

The equation for the magnetic field strength (magnitude) produced by a long straight current-carrying wire is:

B=μ0I2πrB=μ0I2πr

For a long straight wire whereIis the current,ris the shortest distance to the wire, and the constant0=4π10−7T⋅m/A is the permeability of free space. (μ0is one of the basic constants in nature, related to the speed of light. ) Since the wire is very long, the magnitude of the field depends only on distance from the wirer, not on position along the wire. This is one of the simplest cases to calculate the magnetic field strenght from a current.

The magnetic field of a long straight wire has more implications than one might first suspect.Each segment of current produces a magnetic field like that of a long straight wire, and the total field of any shape current is thevectorsum of the fields due to each segment.The formal statement of the direction and magnitude of the field due to each segment is called the Biot-Savart law. Integral calculus is needed to sum the field for an arbitrary shape current. The Biot-Savart law is written in its complete form as:

B=μoI4π∫dl×^rr2B=μoI4π∫dl×r^r2

where the integral sums over the wire length where vectordℓis the direction of the current;ris the distance between the location ofdℓ,and the location at which the magnetic field is being calculated; andr̂is a unit vector in the direction ofr. The reader may apply the simplifications in calculating the magnetic field from an infinite straight wire as above and see that the Biot-Savart law reduces to the first, simpler equation.

Ampere’s Law

A more fundamental law than the Biot-Savart law is Ampere’s Law, which relates magnetic field and current in a general way. In SI units, the integral form of the original Ampere’s circuital law is a line integral of the magnetic field around some closed curve C (arbitrary but must be closed). The curve C in turn bounds both a surface S through which the electric current passes through (again arbitrary but not closed—since no three-dimensional volume is enclosed by S), and encloses the current. You can think of the “surface” as the cross-sectional area of a wire carrying current.

The mathematical statement of the law states that the total magnetic field around some path is directly proportional to the current which passes through that enclosed path. It can be written in a number of forms, one of which is given below.

∮B⋅dl=μ0∬SJ⋅dS=μ0Ienc∮B⋅dl=μ0∬SJ⋅dS=μ0Ienc

where the magnetic field is integrated over a curve (circumfrence of a wire), equivalent to integrating the current density (in amperes per square meter, Am-2) over the cross section area of the wire (which is equal to the permeability constant times the enclosed currentIenc). Ampere’s law is always valid for steady currents and can be used to calculate the B-field for certain highly symmetric situations such as an infinite wire or an infinite solenoid. Ampere’s Law is also a component of Maxwell’s Equations.

Force on a Current-Carrying Wire

The force on a current carrying wire (as in ) is similar to that of a moving charge as expected since a charge carrying wire is a collection of moving charges. A current-carrying wire feels a force in the presence of a magnetic field. Consider a conductor (wire) of lengthℓ, cross sectionA, and chargeqwhich is due to electric currenti.