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Explain the structure and stability of chlorides of group iV- A elements

Explain the structure and stability of chlorides of group iV- A elements

Grade:

1 Answers

Aarti Gupta
askIITians Faculty 300 Points
7 years ago
Group IV elements form tetrahalides of the type MX4,except PbI4.These halides are typically covalent,tetrahedral in structure and are very volatile.Carbon forms carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) which is extensively used as a solvent and in the manufacture of freons.The carbon halides are not hydrolysed under normal conditions because of non-availability of d-orbitals.Other chlorides can be hydrolysed in water.
SiCl4 + 4H2O -----------> Si(OH)4 + 4HCl
GeCl4 hydrolysed less readily.SnCl4 and PbCl4 hydrolyse in dilute solutions but hydrolysis is often incomplete. PbCl4 is unstable .
Carbon forms a number of catenated halides the best known is being teflon.Silicon forms polymers(SiCl2)n by passing the tetrahalide over heated silicon.Germanium forms the dimer Ge2Cl6,but Sn and Pb do not form any catenated halides.
These elements also form dihalides and there stability order is -
CX2<<SiX2<GeX2<SnX2<PbX2
PbX2 is more stable than PbX4, while GeX4 is more stable than GeX2.

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