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gauge invariance of the hamilton of the electromagnetic field?

gauge invariance of the hamilton of the electromagnetic field?

Grade:8

1 Answers

Saurabh Kumar
askIITians Faculty 2411 Points
6 years ago
A gauge-invariant Wigner quasi-distribution function for charged particles in classical electromagnetic fields is derived in a rigorous way. Its relation to the axial gauge is discussed, as well as the relation between the kinetic and canonical momenta in the Wigner representation. Gauge-invariant quantum analogs of Hamilton-Jacobi and Boltzmann kinetic equations are formulated for arbitrary classical electromagnetic fields in terms of the "slashed" derivatives and momenta, introduced for this purpose. The kinetic meaning of these slashed quantities is discussed. We introduce gauge-invariant conditional moments and use them to derive a kinetic momentum continuity equation. This equation provides us with a hydrodynamic representation for quantum transport processes and a definition of the "collision force". The hydrodynamic equation is applied for the rotation part of the electron motion. The theory is illustrated by its application in three examples. These are: Wigner quasi-distribution function and equations for an electron in a magnetic field and harmonic potential; Wigner quasi-distribution function for a charged particle in periodic systems using the kq representation; two Wigner quasi-distribution functions for heavy-mass polaron in an electric field.

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