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Can I know about atoms and molecules from maharishi kanand to quarks theory?

Can I know about atoms and molecules from maharishi kanand to quarks theory?


1 Answers

Vasanth SR
askIITians Faculty 1310 Points
4 years ago
Maharishi kanand
The ideas of Kanada span a wide range of fields, and they influenced not only philosophy, but possibly scholars in other fields such as Charaka who wrote a medical text that has survived asCharaka Samhita.

Kanada begins his famedSutrasby defining Dharma as that which brings about material progress and highest good. He follows this Sutra with another that asserts that the Vedas have gained respect because they teach such Dharma, and something is not Dharma simply because it is in the Vedas.[20]Kanada makes empirical observations such as the rising upwards of fire, magnetic movement, rain and thunder, the growth of grass, and attempts to offer naturalistic explanations to them in his textVaisheshika Sutra.Kanada and early Vaisheshika scholars were non-theistic. However, this was not unusual for his times since several major early versions of Hindu philosophies such as Samkhya, Nyaya, Mimamsa along with sub-schools of Yoga and Vedanta, as well as non-Vedic schools such as Jainism and Buddhism, were similarly non-theistic.Kanada was among the sages of India who believed in man's potential to understand existence and reachmokshaon his own, without God, a notion of ancient Indians summarized by Nietzsche as the belief that "with piety and knowledge of the Veda, nothing is impossible".

Observations and theories

In the fifth chapter of Vaisheshika Sutra, Kanada mentions various empirical observations and natural phenomena such as the falling of objects to ground, rising of fire and heat upwards, the growth of grass upwards, the nature of rainfall and thunderstorms, the flow of liquids, the movement towards a magnet among many others, asks why these things happen, then attempts to integrate his observations with his theories on atoms, molecules and their interaction. He classifies observed events into two: those caused by volition, and those caused by subject-object conjunctions.

The concept of anu (atom)[edit]Vaisheshika Darshana
Dharmais that through which there is the accomplishment of rising to the unsurpassed good. Because it is an exposition of that, it has the authority ofVeda. –Vaisheshika Sutras 1.1-2

That there is only one individual (soul) is known from the absence of particularity when it comes to the emergence of understanding of happiness and suffering, (whereas) a multiplicity of individuals is inferred from their perseverance in dharma, and from the strength of their teaching. –Vaisheshika Sutras 3.16-18

The true being is eternal, having no cause. Its indicator is its effect. The presence of the effect arises from the presence of its cause. –Vaisheshika Sutras 4.1-3
—Kaṇāda, Translated by John Wells[28][29]Kanada came up with the idea that anu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.[30]An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand. As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence. He called that indivisible matteranu, i.e. molecule, which was misinterpreted as atom. He also stated thatanucan have two states — absolute rest and a state of motion.

Adherents of the school of philosophy founded by Kanada considered theatomto be indestructible, and hence eternal. They believed atoms to be minute objects invisible to the naked eye which come into being and vanish in an instant. Vaiseshikas further held that atoms of same substance combined with each other to produce dvyanuka (diatomic molecules) and tryanuka (triatomic molecules). Kanada also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthern pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.

Kanada's conception of theatomwas likely independent from the similar concept among the ancient Greeks, because of the differences between the theories. For example, Kanada suggested that atoms as building blocks differ both qualitatively and quantitatively, while Greeks suggested that atoms differed only quantitatively but not qualitatively.

Quarks theory
Aquark(/ˈkwɔːrk/ or /ˈkwɑːrk/) is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.Quarkscombine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. ... Up and downquarkshave the lowest masses of allquarks.

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