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Grade: 12
        
Can u pls explain how the siRNA made available in the plant n how it's introduced into the nematode in a stepwise manner. (RNAi)
Pls explain it briefly no need of long answer...
one year ago

Answers : (1)

dolly bhatia
200 Points
							
RNAi is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. Historically, RNA interference was known by other names, including co-suppressionpost-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling. The detailed study of each of these seemingly different processes, elucidated that the identity of these phenomena were all actually RNAiComponents of the RNAi pathway are used in many eukaryotes in the maintenance of the organization and structure of their genomes. Modification of histones and associated induction of heterochromatin formation serves to down-regulate genes pre-transcriptionally; this process is referred to as RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) and is carried out by a complex of proteins called the RITS complex. In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function. As a consequence, the induction and spread of heterochromatic regions requires the argonaute and RdRP proteins. Indeed, deletion of these genes in the fission yeast S.pombe disrupts histone methylation and centomere formation, causing slow or stalled anaphase during cell division. In some cases, similar processes associated with histone modification have been observed to transcriptionally upregulate genesThe mechanism by which the RITS complex induces heterochromatin formation and organization is not well understood. Scientists have focused on the mating-type region in fission yeast, which may not be representative of activities in other genomic regions/organisms. In maintenance of existing heterochromatin regions, RITS forms a complex with siRNAs complementary to the local genes and stably binds local methylated histones, acting co-transcriptionally to degrade any nascent pre-mRNA transcripts that are initiated by RNA polymerase. The formation of such a heterochromatin region, though not its maintenance, is dicer-dependent, presumably because dicer is required to generate the initial complement of siRNAs that target subsequent transcripts. Heterochromatin maintenance has been suggested to function as a self-reinforcing feedback loop, as new siRNAs are formed from the occasional nascent transcripts by RdRP for incorporation into local RITS complexes. The relevance of observations from fission yeast mating-type regions and centromeres to mammals is not clear, as heterochromatin maintenance in mammalian cells may be independent of the components of the RNAi pathway.
one year ago
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