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Grade: 9
        
can anybody give the notes of the chapter the french revolution of class 9th
10 days ago

Answers : (1)

Arun
20402 Points
							
Introduction
 
French revolution started in 1789. The series of events started by the middle class shaken the upper classes. The people revolted against the cruel regime of monarchy. This revolution put forward the ideas of liberty, fraternity, and equality.
 
• The revolution began on 14th July, 1789 with the storming of the fortress-prison, the Bastille.
→The Bastille, the fortress prison was hated by all, because it stood for the despotic power of the king.
→ The fortress was demolished.
 
Causes of the French Revolution:
 
Social Cause
 
French Society During the Late Eighteenth Century

The term ‘Old Regime’ is usually used to describe the society and institutions of France before 1789.

The society was divided into three estates.
1. 1st Estate: Clergy (Group of persons involved in church matters)
2. 2nd Estate: Nobility (Persons who have high rank in state administration)
3. 3rd Estate: (Comprises of Big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, Peasants and artisans, landless labour, servants)

• First two classes were exempted from paying taxes. They enjoyed privileges by birth. Nobility classes also enjoyed feudal privileges.

• Only the members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state.
→ Direct tax called taille and also a number of indirect taxes which were charged on articles of everyday consumption like salt or tobacco.

• A tax called Tithe was also collected by the church from the peasants.

• Clergy and Nobility were 10% of the population but possessed 60% of lands. Third Estate was 90% of the population but possessed 40% of the lands.
 
Economic Cause
 
Subsistence Crisis
 
• The population of France rose from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789.
 
• This increased the demand for the foodgrains. However, production could not keep pace with the demand which ultimately increased the prices of the foodgrains.

• Most workers work as labourers in the workshops and they didn’t see increase in their wages.

• Situation became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest.

• This led to the scarcity of foodgrains or Subsistence Crisis which started occurring frequently during old regime.
 
Political Cause
 
• Louis XVI came into the power in 1774 and found empty treasury.

• Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.

• Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain which added more than a billion livres to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 billion livres.

• An extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles also cost a lot.

• To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes.
 
Growing Middle Class
 
• The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, termed the middle class, who earned their wealth through overseas trade, from manufacturing of goods and professions.

• This class was educated believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth.

• They were inspired by the ideas put forward by the various philosophers and became a matter of talk intensively for these classes in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through books and newspapers.

• The American constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example for political thinkers in France.
 
Philosophers and their contribution in revolution
 
• John Locke: (written a book named ‘Two Treatises of Government’) in which he criticized the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch.

• Jean Jacques Rousseau (written a book named ‘Social Contract’) in which he proposed a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.

• Montesquieu (written a book named ‘The Spirit of the Laws’) in which he proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary.
 
The Outbreak of the Revolution
 
• Louis XVI called an assembly of the Estates General to pass his proposals to increase taxes on 5th May 1789.

• The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each, who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back.

• The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members only while peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly.

• Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote and same practice to be continued this time. But members of the third estate demanded individual voting right, where each member would have one vote.

• After rejection of this proposal by the king, members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest.
 
 
• On 20th June, the representatives of the third estate assembled in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles where they declared themselves a National Assembly and vowed to draft a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch.

• Mirabeau, a noble and Abbé Sieyès, a priest led the third estate.

• While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France was in trouble.

• Severe winter destroyed the food crops which resulted in increase in the prices. The bakers also hoarded supplies of breads for making greater profit.

• After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.

• At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille.

• In the countryside rumours spread from village to village that the lords of the manor were on their way to destroy the ripe crops through their hired gangs.

• Due to fear, peasants in several districts attacked the castle of nobles, looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues.

• Large numbers of noble fled from their homes and many migrated to neighbouring countries.

• Louis XVI finally recognised the National Assembly and accepted the constitution. 

• On 4th August, 1789, France passed the law for abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes.

• The member of clergy were also forced to give up their privileges.

• Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the Church were confiscated.
 
France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy
 
• The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791 which main object was to limit the powers of the monarch.

• The powers were now separated and assigned to different institutions – the legislature, executive and judiciary which made France a constitutional monarchy.
 
9 days ago
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