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can somebody give me notes on coal and petroleum for the ftre exam

can somebody give me notes on coal and petroleum for the ftre exam


3 Answers

216 Points
6 years ago
• India has about 80 billion tones of coal deposits. Nearly 250 million tones of coal are now being
mined every year. So, it is eliminated that the entire coal reserves will get exhausted in about 300
years. At present 65% of India’s commercial needs are met by coal.
• Coal is as hard as stone and black in color
• Major coal mines are West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh
• It is also known as buried sunshine
• Coal is mainly made up of carbon.
• Coal is a fossil fuel
• Heating coal in limited supply of air or in absence of air is called destructive distillation
• Coal is believed to formed over the years under the earth’s surface by the slow decomposition of
vegetation matter under the influence of high temperature, high pressure and little air.
• The slow decomposition of vegetation matter to coal is called carbonization
• PEAT ‐ 60% carbon ‐ 10.5 – 12.6 kJ/g
• LIGNITE (soft coal) ‐ 70% carbon ‐ 14.7 – 18.9 kJ/g
• BITUMINOUS (house hold coal) ‐ 80% carbon ‐ 28 – 31 kJ/g
• ANTHRACITE (hard coal) ‐ 90% carbon ‐ 31 ‐ 33 kJ/g
• Elemental analysis gives empirical formulas such as C137H97O9NS for bituminous coal and
C240H90O4NS for high‐grade anthracite.
• Coal is used to cook food
• It was used in railway engines to produce steams to run the engine
• Used in thermal power plants to produce electricity
• Coal is also used in industries to produce fuel
• It is processed in industries to get useful products such as coke, coal tar and coal gas
• Used in manufacturing of synthetic petrol and synthetic natural gas
• It is the solution of ammonia in gas.
• It reacts with sulphuric acid to prepare ammoniacal fertilizers
• It is almost pure form of carbon and Solid residue after destructive distillation and a smokeless fuel
• Good reducing agent, used in blast furnace to reduce iron ore to iron
• The calorific value of carbon is 34 kJ/g
• Coke floats on water when dissolved this is due to the presence of air gaps in it
• Used in the manufacture of steel and in extraction of many metals
• Coke is used as a fuel and reducing agent in metallurgy
• It is used to prepare important gases like water gas (CO + H2), producer gas (CO + N2) and graphite
• When C + H2 is passed over red hot coke to produce CO + H2 (water gas)
• A black viscous liquid with disagreeable smell
• A mixture of about 200 substances and compounds obtained from it are benzene, toluene, phenol,
xylene etc…
• Used in the manufacture of synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, photographic
material, roofing material and naphthalene balls
• Fractional distillation of coal tar gives light oil
• Mainly consists of low molecular alkanes and alkenes and is used as a fuel
• Obtained during the processing of coal to get coke
• A good fuel and have a high calorific value
• Used as cooking gas and for lights
• Coal gas was first used for street lighting for the first time in London in 1810 and New York in 1820
• Coal gas is a mixture of 35 % of CH4 +45 % of H2 + 8 % of CO and 12 %of other gases
• Coal gas is rich in CH4 and gives off up to 20.5 kJ per liter of gas burned.
216 Points
6 years ago
• Found in a rock called kimperlite
• The four valence electrons in the carbon atom are bonded strongly with the other four neighboring
carbon atoms. These carbon atoms are again further bonded to four other carbon atoms and so in a
tetrahedron pattern giving crystalline form
• Diamond is the hardest allotrope of carbon due to carbon covalent bonding
• Density of diamond is 3.5 g / cm3 and Specific gravity of 3.52
• Density between each C – C in diamond is 1.530A which makes crystal compact and makes it denser
• Transparent to X‐rays.
• Diamond in above 700 – 8000C forms CO2 without any residue
• Diamond in 15000C in the absence of O2 forms graphite
• Insoluble to all solvents except reacts very highly with fluorine at 7500C to give carbon tetra fluoride
• Used as a dye for drawing tungsten wires
• Black diamonds are called carbonando
• Weight of diamonds are measured in carats
• It is three dimensional natured
• The biggest diamond ever found is cullinan
• Diamond is an example of a covalent crystal
• Graphite is the allotrope of carbon
• Found naturally as the mineral plumbago
• The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged in hexagonal layers like structures. The structure is two
dimensional. Out of four valence electrons in carbon, only three are involved in bonding and one is
free. Hexagonal layers are held together by weak attractive forces are called vanderwall forces. The
layers can slide one over than other and are slippery to touch
• Dark grey crystalline solid with metallic luster
• Density is 2.3g/cm3 specific gravity is 2.3
• It is used as lubricant
• Transmission of light ‐ opaque to x‐rays
• Good conductors of electricity due to presence of free electrons
• Insoluble in solvents normally
• melting point of graphite is above 35000C
• when burnt in oxygen at about 7000C it forms CO2
• As a good conductor of electricity, it is used as electrode in batteries and electric furnaces. Due to
slippery nature, it is used as a lubricant, used to manufacture of refractory crucible. Used as a
lubricant, in nuclear reactions
• Discovered in 1985 as a third crystalline allotrope of carbon called buckminister fullerene (C60) by
H W Kroto, R F Curl, R E Smalley
• The other fullerenes are C32, C50, C70, C76, C84
• One molecule of buckminister has 60 C atoms arranged in hexagon and pentagon which are joined
by double covalent bonds
• It is a yellow powder
• Soluble in organic solvent
• Density ranges from 1.8 to 2.1
• A bad conductor of electricity
• More active than diamond and graphite chemically
• Fullerenes are tiny soccer balls known as bucy balls
216 Points
6 years ago
• When wood is heated in the absence of air wood charcoal is obtained this process is known as
• In this process we obtain gaseous, wood gas, liquids like pyroligneous acid(acetone, methanol and
acetic acid), wood tar and solid residual wood charcoal
• It is soft, black, porous material
• Tasteless and brittle and density of 1.5 g cm‐3 and specific gravity of1.5 to 1.9
• Bad conductor of electricity
• Acts as a good absorbent (surface phenomena absorption) for foul smelling gases and poisonous
• When heated above 9000C by steam, the pores open up more, resulting in a charcoal called as
activated charcoal
• When coconut shells are heated in absence of air we get activated charcoal
• Due to many pores air is trapped in hence floats in water
• Used as a fuel
• Good absorbent because decolorizes sugar syrup, can remove any color and odour of water by
• Obtained by the destructive distillation of bones
• Contains carbonate and phosphate of calcium along with 10% carbon
• Products obtained during process include bone oil and pyridine
• Used as a fuel
• Good absorbent because decolorizes sugar syrup, can remove any color and odour of water by
• Used in the purification of organic liquids
• Purest form of amorphous carbon.
• Prepared by removing sugar from cane sugar. Here Conc. H2SO4 poured on sugar, which acts as a
dehydrating agent. It absorbs water from sugar leaving sugar charcoal
• Used to extract metals from metal oxides
• Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called as hydrocarbon
• Catenation is the property of carbon which gives carbon the ability to form chains
• Carbogen is the mixture of 95% of oxygen and 5% of CO2
• Carbon acts as a very good reducing agent
• The density of coal is more when compared to coke
• The isotope of carbon used in dating is carbon 14 isotope
• Fly ash is produced by coal
• Cracking is the process of conversion of higher hydrocarbons by heating them strongly to
decompose them into lower hydrocarbons with lower boiling points

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