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can anyone please explain me the detailed IUPAC nomenclature . i am now in class 10 to what extent i have to know the nomenclature of organic compounds ?

can anyone please explain me the detailed IUPAC nomenclature . i am now in class 10 to what extent i have to know the nomenclature of organic compounds ? 

Grade:10

10 Answers

Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
In chemistry, a number of prefixes, suffixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound.

The steps to naming an organic compound are:

Identification of the parent hydrocarbon chain. This chain must obey the following rules, in order of precedence:

It should have the maximum number of substituents of the suffix functional group. By suffix, it is meant that the parent functional group should have a suffix, unlike halogen substituents. If more than one functional group is present, the one with highest precedence should be used.
It should have the maximum number of multiple bonds
It should have the maximum number of single bonds.
It should have the maximum length.

Identification of the parent functional group, if any, with the highest order of precedence.
Identification of the side-chains. Side chains are the carbon chains that are not in the parent chain, but are branched off from it.
Identification of the remaining functional groups, if any, and naming them by the their ion names (such as hydroxy for -OH, oxy for =O, oxyalkane for O-R, etc.).
Different side-chains and functional groups will be grouped together in alphabetical order. (The prefixes di-, tri-, etc. are not taken into consideration for grouping alphabetically. For example, ethyl comes before dihydroxy or dimethyl, as the "e" in "ethyl" precedes the "h" in "dihydroxy" and the "m" in "dimethyl" alphabetically. The "di" is not considered in either case). When both side chains and secondary functional groups are present, they should be written mixed together in one group rather than in two separate groups.
Identification of double/triple bonds.
Numbering of the chain. This is done by first numbering the chain in both directions (left to right and right to left), and then choosing the numbering which follows these rules, in order of precedence:

Has the lowest-numbered locant (or locants) for the suffix functional group. Locants are the numbers on the carbons to which the substituent is directly attached.
Has the lowest-numbered locants for multiple bonds (The locant of a multiple bond is the number of the adjacent carbon with a lower number).
Has the lowest-numbered locants for double bonds.
Has the lowest-numbered locants for prefixes.

Numbering of the various substituents and bonds with their locants. If there is more than one of the same type of substituent/double bond, a prefix is added showing how many there are.
Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
In chemistry, a number of prefixes, suffixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound.

The steps to naming an organic compound are:

Identification of the parent hydrocarbon chain. This chain must obey the following rules, in order of precedence:

It should have the maximum number of substituents of the suffix functional group. By suffix, it is meant that the parent functional group should have a suffix, unlike halogen substituents. If more than one functional group is present, the one with highest precedence should be used.
It should have the maximum number of multiple bonds
It should have the maximum number of single bonds.
It should have the maximum length.

Identification of the parent functional group, if any, with the highest order of precedence.
Identification of the side-chains. Side chains are the carbon chains that are not in the parent chain, but are branched off from it.
Identification of the remaining functional groups, if any, and naming them by the their ion names (such as hydroxy for -OH, oxy for =O, oxyalkane for O-R, etc.).
Different side-chains and functional groups will be grouped together in alphabetical order.
Identification of double/triple bonds.
Numbering of the chain. This is done by first numbering the chain in both directions (left to right and right to left), and then choosing the numbering which follows these rules, in order of precedence:

Has the lowest-numbered locant (or locants) for the suffix functional group. Locants are the numbers on the carbons to which the substituent is directly attached.
Has the lowest-numbered locants for multiple bonds (The locant of a multiple bond is the number of the adjacent carbon with a lower number).
Has the lowest-numbered locants for double bonds.
Has the lowest-numbered locants for prefixes.

Numbering of the various substituents and bonds with their locants. If there is more than one of the same type of substituent/double bond, a prefix is added showing how many there are.
Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain.

Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain).

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers. When compairing a series of numbers, the series that is the "lowest" is the one which contains the lowest number at the occasion of the first difference. If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, assign the lowest number to the one which will come first in the name.

If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given. In addition, the number of times the substituent group occurs is indicated by a prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.).

If there are two or more different substituents they are listed in alphabetical order using the base name (ignore the prefixes). The only prefix which is used when putting the substituents in alphabetical order is iso as in isopropyl or isobutyl. The prefixes sec- and tert- are not used in determining alphabetical order except when compared with each other.

If chains of equal length are competing for selection as the parent chain, then the choice goes in series to:
a) the chain which has the greatest number of side chains.
b) the chain whose substituents have the lowest- numbers.
c) the chain having the greatest number of carbon atoms in the smaller side chain.
d)the chain having the least branched side chains.

A cyclic (ring) hydrocarbon is designated by the prefix cyclo- which appears directly in front of the base name.
Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain.

Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain).

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers.

If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given. In addition, the number of times the substituent group occurs is indicated by a prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.).

If there are two or more different substituents they are listed in alphabetical order using the base name (ignore the prefixes). The only prefix which is used when putting the substituents in alphabetical order is iso as in isopropyl or isobutyl. The prefixes sec- and tert- are not used in determining alphabetical order except when compared with each other.

If chains of equal length are competing for selection as the parent chain, then the choice goes in series to:
a) the chain which has the greatest number of side chains.
b) the chain whose substituents have the lowest- numbers.
c) the chain having the greatest number of carbon atoms in the smaller side chain.
d)the chain having the least branched side chains.

A cyclic (ring) hydrocarbon is designated by the prefix cyclo- which appears directly in front of the base name.
Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain.

Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain).

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers.

If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given. In addition, the number of times the substituent group occurs is indicated by a prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.).

If there are two or more different substituents they are listed in alphabetical order using the base name (ignore the prefixes). The only prefix which is used when putting the substituents in alphabetical order is iso as in isopropyl or isobutyl. The prefixes sec- and tert- are not used in determining alphabetical order except when compared with each other.

If chains of equal length are competing for selection as the parent chain, then the choice goes in series to:
a) the chain which has the greatest number of side chains.
b) the chain whose substituents have the lowest- numbers.
c) the chain having the greatest number of carbon atoms in the smaller side chain.
d)the chain having the least branched side chains.

Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain.

Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain).

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers.

If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given. In addition, the number of times the substituent group occurs is indicated by a prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.).

If there are two or more different substituents they are listed in alphabetical order using the base name (ignore the prefixes). The only prefix which is used when putting the substituents in alphabetical order is iso as in isopropyl or isobutyl. The prefixes sec- and tert- are not used in determining alphabetical order except when compared with each other.


Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain.

Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain).

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers.

If the same substituent occurs more than once, the location of each point on which the substituent occurs is given. In addition, the number of times the substituent group occurs is indicated by a prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.).


Suraj Prasad IIT Patna
askIITians Faculty 286 Points
7 years ago
Identify the longest carbon chain. This chain is called the parent chain.

Identify all of the substituents (groups appending from the parent chain).

Number the carbons of the parent chain from the end that gives the substituents the lowest numbers.



Naveen Kumar
askIITians Faculty 60 Points
7 years ago
There are certain rules which govern the naming of compounds. For detail study, you should follow any goo text book.
It is fine if you just learn the naming of hydrocarbons but at the same time you should be aware of common names of some compounds also !!
Naveen Kumar
askIITians Faculty 60 Points
7 years ago
There are certain rules which govern the naming of compounds. For detail study, you should follow any goo text book.
It is fine if you just learn the naming of hydrocarbons but at the same time you should be aware of common names of some compounds also !!

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