State of a System

When macroscopic properties of a system have definite values, the system is said to be in definite state. Whenever there is a change in any one of the macroscopic properties, the system is said to change into a different state. Thus, the state of a system is fixed by its macroscopic properties.

State variables

Since the state of a system changed with change in any of the macroscopic properties, these properties are called state variables or the thermodynamics parameters which depends only upon the initial and final states of the system and independent of the manner as to how the change is brought are called state functions. Some common state functions are internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, pressure, temperature, volume etc.

Thermodynamic equilibrium

A system in which the macroscopic properties do not undergo any change with time is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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