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Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
The heat capacity (C) of a sample of substance is the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of the sample of substance by one degree Celsius (or Kelvin).
q = cΔt
Heat capacity is directly proportional to the amount of substance.
The specific heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius at constant pressure.
q = s × m × Δt
where q is the heat required to raise temperature
m = mass in grams
s = specific heat of the substance
Δt = temperature difference
VARIATION OF HEAT OF REACTION WITH TEMPERATURE
The heat of reaction depends on the temperature. The relation between the two is known asKirchoff’s equation.
(i) ΔH2 – ΔH1 / T2 – T1 = ΔCP (ii) ΔE2 – ΔE1 / T2 – T1 = ΔCV
ΔCP = molar heat capacity of products – molar heat capacity of reactants (at constant pressure)
ΔCv = molar heat capacity of products – molar heat capacity of reactants (at constant volume)
Sample problem: The standard heat of formation listed for gaseous NH3 is -11.02 kcal/mol at
298 K. Given that at 298 K, the constant pressure heat capacities of gaseous N2, H2 and NH3 are respectively 6.96, 6.89, 8.38 cal/mol. Determine ΔH0298K and ΔH773 K for the reactions,
1/2 N2 (g) + 3/2 H2 (g) ——> NH3(g)
Solution: 1/2 N2 (g) + 3/2 H2 (g) ——> NH3(g)
ΔH298K = Σ(Hf)p – Σ(Hf)R = –(11.02 – 0)
= -11.02 kcal mol-1
ΔH2 = -13.6 kcal mol-1
The specific heats of iodine vapour and solid are 0.031 and 0.055 cals/g respectively. If heat of sublimation of iodine is 24 cals/g at 200°C, Calculate its value at 250 °C.