Solutions

This chapter besides being simple is very important too especially the section dealing with Raoult’s Law , Colligative properties and Van’t Hoff Factor.Colligative properties are those properties of solutions that depend on the number of dissolved particles in solution, but not on the identities of the solutes. For example, the freezing point of salt water is lower than that of pure water, due to the presence of the salt dissolved in the water.

To a good approximation, it does not matter whether the salt dissolved in water is sodium chloride or potassium nitrate; if the molar amounts of solute are the same and the number of ions are the same, the freezing points will be the same. For example, AlCl3 and K3PO4 would exhibit essentially the same colligative properties, since each compound dissolves to produce four ions per formula unit. The four commonly studied colligative properties are freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, vapor pressure lowering, and osmotic pressure. Since these properties yield information on the number of solute particles in solution, one can use them to obtain the molecular weight of the solute.

Solutions

Solvent and Solute | Types of Solutions | Methods of Expressing Concentration of Solution | Mole FractionMolality | Molarity | Solutions of Solids in Liquids | Determination of Solubility | Solutions of Liquids in Liquids | Relationship-Molality and Molarity | NormalitySolutions of Gases in Liquids | Raoults Law | Ideal Solutions | Comparison-Ideal and Non-Ideal SolutionsExamples on Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions | Colligative Properties of Dilute Solutions | Lowering in Vapour Pressure | Ostwald and Walker Method | Example based on Lowering in Vapour Pressure | Elevation of Boiling Point | Molal Elevation Constant | Depression of Freezing Point | Solved Examples of Depression of Freezing PointOsmosis and Osmotic Pressure | Determination of Osmotic Pressure | Reverse Osmosis | Theory of Fractional Distillation | Abnormal Colligative PropertiesRelation-Osmotic Pressure and Vapour Pressure | Partial Pressure of Immiscible Liquids | Vant Hoff Theory of Dilute Solutions | Determination of Molecular MassesSolved Examples of Molecular Mass

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