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Types of Solutions

 

Table of Content


We know that a binary solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances:  a solute and a solvent

Solution components are:

Solute: is the substance being dissolved; present in less quantity.

Solvent: is the substance doing the dissolving; present in large quantity.
 

What are the basis of solution’s differentiation? OR

Why is Solution of so many types?

The different types are given below:

CASE – 01: On the basis of Water as Solvent

Aqueous solution: Solutions that contain water as the solvent.

Ex. sugar in water, carbon dioxide in water, etc.

Non-Aqueous Solution:  Solutions that contain a solvent other than water like Ether, benzene, petrol, carbon tetrachloride etc

Ex. sulfur in carbon disulphide, naphthalene in benzene, etc.
 

CASE – 02:  On the basis of amount of Solute Added

Unsaturated Solution: A solution is said to be unsaturated when the solvent (e.g. water) is capable of dissolving more solute (e.g. Sugar) at a (definite/fixed) temperature.

Ex: 1% NaCl solution.(1 g of NaCl in 99 ml pure water)

Saturated Solution: A solution is said to be saturated when the solvent is not capable of dissolving any more solute at a (definite/fixed) temperature.

Ex: 40% NaCl solution

Supersaturated Solution: A solution is said to be super saturated when the solute is present in excess amount and dissolved forcefully by increasing temperature or pressure. They generally crystal out in bottom by the method called crystallization.

Ex: 70% NaCl solution

Supersaturated solution

 

CASE – 03: On the basis of Type/State of Solvent used

(Solutes and solvents may be of any form of matter: solid, liquid or gas)

Solute

Solvent

Example

Solid

Liquid

Mineral water, Saline(NaCI) solution, Sugar solution

Solid

Solid

Alloys such as brass, which is a solution of zinc in copper

Liquid

Solid

Dental amalgam, mercury in silver

Liquid

Liquid

Ethylene glycol in water (antifreeze in radiator) acetic acid in water (Vinegar)

Gas

Solid

Hydrogen gas in palladium metal

Gas

Liquid

Co2 in water (carbonated beverage), ammonia solution

Gas

Gas

Air in the atmosphere, may gasses in nitrogen


CASE - 04: On the basis of amount of Solvent Added

Concentrated Solution: A solution is said to be concentrated when it has large amount of solute in given solvent.

Ex: Brine solution, Orange juice, dark color tea.

Dilute Solution: A solution is said to be dilute when it contains small amount of solute in large amount of solvent.

Ex: Salt solution, light color tea

Dilute solution


CASE-05: On the basis of Concentration of Solute in two Solutions

(Let’s consider a system containing a solution in beaker and inside that solution a Biological cell is kept, this cell contain a liquid in it, all together we have two liquids in this system)

Isotonic Solution: The two solutions that have the same concentration of a solute in it so water moves across the cell membrane in both directions maintaining cell size.

Ex: A solution of 0.89% NaCl.

Hypertonic Solution: The solution kept in beaker has higher concentration of solute in it so water comes out of the cell and into the solution in beaker causing the cell to plasmolyze/shrink

Ex: Salt solution, Corn syrup

Hypotonic Solution: The solution kept in beaker has lower concentration of solute in it so water moves into the cell causing cells to swell up and finally burst.

Ex: Water

Hypotonic Solution

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