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Solution

 

Table of Content


What is Solution? 

SolutionIt is defined as a type of homogenous mixture which is formed by minimum two or more than two chemical substances. Homogenous means a sample which is in one type of state or phase and said to have uniform composition throughout. In a lay man term, It tells that the substances which is mixed to give a solution cannot be differentiated due to uniformity.

E.g.: Salt- water, Rubbing- alcohol (Sanitizer), Sugar- water, Oxygen- CO2 solutions etc. When we look closely, on mixing salt in water with stirring, the final solution do not show any salt particle in water this makes it homogenous salt solution mixture (It means combination of two or more substances in some specific ratio).


Think Tank

1. Vodka (ethanol in water) is solution or not?

2. If we mix sugar and salt having same size and shape does it form homogenous mixture?

3. The Earth's soil is saturated with nitrogen?
 

Solution Characteristic’s

A solution exhibits various important properties like:

  • A solution is generally a homogenous mixture.

  • A homogenous solution is present in one phase / state (e.g. Solid / liquid / gas).

  • The particles of solution are extremely small so they are not visible to the naked eye.

  • Since particles of solution is present in one phase they do not scatter a beam of light passing through it or do not show tyndall effect.

  • Since the particles of solution is mixed uniformly it is stable and does not settle down with time.

  • The solute particle added are so minute that they cannot be separated by filtering.
     

Solution Components / Parts

Solute: The component of solution which is present in minority. It is generally present in less amount and it is the component which is dissolved in solution e.g. In sugar-water solution, sugar is solute.

Solvent: The component of solution which is present in majority. It is generally present in more amount, it is the component in which solute is dissolved. For Example: In sugar-water solution, water is solvent.

Solution Components/Parts

Some Unique Facts about Solution

  • There is a unique solution called Aqua Regia (which is 3:1 mixture of concentrated HCl + concentrated HNO3) it can dissolve the Nobel metals like gold, silver, platinum etc. Since it has high dissolving power for Nobel metals which is non-reactive that’s why it is even regarded as Royal Water.

  • The solution is so uniform that we can’t see a beam of light when it is passed through True Solutions.

  • We have a wrong notion in mind that solution is always in liquid state, solution can be either solid, liquid or gas. For Example: Steel is a solid solution in which both solute and solvent are solid.

  • Cold drinks are prepared by forceful dissolution of carbon dioxide into liquid solvent at high pressure.
     

What is the process of addition of solute in solvent known as?

Solubility: It is a measure of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent to form a stable solution.

For Example: 100 mL of pure water at 25°C can dissolve no more than 35.92 grams of NaCl to form a stable solution.
 

Factors affecting Solubility

  • Pressure: Imagine the solubility of CO2 gas in soft drinks, is it under high pressure or low.

  • Temperature: Imagine the solubility of sugar in water, is it better at high temperature or low.

  • Nature of solute added: Salts are ionic in nature and Hydrogen gas is covalent, out of these two which dissolves in water easily.

  • Nature of solvent used: We know that there is polar and non polar solvents, out of these which will dissolve salt better.

In general, we can represent solution like this:

Factors affecting Solubility


Watch this Video for more reference

 


 

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