Chemical Bonding

Chemical bonding is the major part of chemistry which is an interaction between two or more atoms that holds them together by reducing the potential energy of their electrons. In other words Bonds are the like chemists "glue" - which hold atoms together in molecules or ions. Valence electrons are the outer shell electrons of an atom which take part in chemical bonding.

Atoms gain or lose electrons to attain a more stable noble gas - like electron configuration (octet rule). There are two ways in which atoms can share electrons to satisfy the octet rule:

Ionic Bonding - occurs when two or more ions combine to form an electrically-neutral compound

The positive cation "loses" an electron (or 2 or 3)

The negative anion "gains" the electron (or 2 or 3)

The anion steals the electrons from the cation.

Covalent Bonding - occurs when two or more atoms combine to form an electrically-neutral compound.

The electrons are shared between the two atoms.

Both atoms don't have charge in the beginning and the compound remains with zero charge.

The chemical activity of an atom is determined by the number of electrons in its valence shell. With the help of concept of chemical bonding one can define the structure of a compound and is used in many industries for manufacturing products.

Topic

Sub - Topics

Chemical Bonding

Introduction to Chemical Bonding | ElectrovalencyFormation of Ionic Bond | Determination of Lattice EnergyCharacteristics of Ionic Compounds | Covalency | HybridizationCo-ordinate Covalency | Examples of HybridizationRule for Determination of Total Number of Hybrid OrbitalsSolved Examples based on Hybridization | Maximum CovalencyValence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory | ResonanceRegular Geometry and Irregular Geometry | Dipole MomentExamples Based on Bond Angle | Percentage of Ionic CharacterRules for Writing Resonating Structures | Bond CharacteristicsFactors Governing Polarization and Polarisability | Hydrogen BondingCalculation of Bond Moments | Effect of Hydrogen BondingImportance of Hydrogen Bonding in Biological SystemsOrigin of Intermolecular Forces | Molecular Orbital TheoryApplication of Molecular to Homonuclear Diatomic MoleculesMolecular Orbitals of Some Diatomic Heteronuclei MoleculesSolved Problems of Chemical Bonding | Miscellaneous Exercises of Chemical Bonding | Solutions to Miscellaneous Exercises

Related Resources
Hydrogen Bonding

HYDROGEN BONDING Introduction: An atom of hydrogen...

Dipole Moment

DIPOLE MOMENT Difference in polarities of bonds is...

Application of Molecular to Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

Application of MOT to homonuclear diatomic...

Solutions to Miscellaneous Exercises

ANSWER TO MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES Exercise 1: The...

Calculation of Bond Moments

Calculation of Resultant Bond Moments Let AB and...

Rule for Determination of Total Number of Hybrid Orbitals

Rule for determination of total number of hybrid...

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION (VSEPR)...

Determination of Lattice Energy

Determination of Lattice Energy The direct...

Solved Examples based on Hybridization

Solved Examples Based on Hybridization Example 8:...

Effect of Hydrogen Bonding

Effect of Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonding has...

Percentage of Ionic Character

PERCENTAGE OF IONIC CHARACTER Every ionic compound...

Co-ordinate Covalency

CO-ORDINATE COVALENCY A covalent bond results from...

Molecular Orbitals of Some Diatomic Heteronuclei Molecules

M.O. of Some Diatomic Heteronuclei Molecules The...

Solved Problems of Chemical Bonding

SOLVED PROBLEMS Board Type Questions Prob 2....

Examples Based on Bond Angle

Solved Examples Example: Why the bond angle of H...

Miscellaneous Exercises of Chemical Bonding

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES Exercise 1: Compare the...

Hybridization

HYBRIDIZATION The tetravalency shown by carbon is...

Maximum Covalency

Maximum Covalency Elements which have vacant...

Molecular Orbital Theory

MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY In Molecular Orbital...

Rules for Writing Resonating Structures

Rules for Writing Resonating Structures Only...

Formation of Ionic Bond

Energy Change During the Formation of Ionic Bond...

Factors Governing Polarization and Polarisability

FACTORS GOVERNING POLARIZATION AND POLARISABILITY...

Origin of Intermolecular Forces

Origin of Intermolecular Forces: Intermolecular...

Electrovalency

ELECTROVALENCY This type of valency involves...

Indroduction to Chemical Bonding

INTRODUCTION A molecule is formed if it is more...

Importance of Hydrogen Bonding in Biological Systems

Importance of Hydrogen Bonding in Biological...

Covalency

COVALENCY This type of valency involves sharing of...

Regular Geometry and Irregular Geometry

Regular Geometry Molecules in which the central...

Examples of Hybridization

Examples of Hybridization We have already...

Resonance

RESONANCE There may be many molecules and ions for...

Bond Characteristics

BOND CHARACTERISTICS 1. Bond Length: The distance...

Characteristics of Ionic Compounds

Characteristics of ionic compounds : The following...