General Characteristics of Organic Compounds

5 years ago

Share

Answers : (1)

                                        












organic compounds are mainly composed of ten elements. These are C, H, O, N, S, P, F, Cl, Br and I. compounds obtained from plants such as starch, sugar, cellulose, oils, fats, etc., contain mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen while those obtained from animals such as urea, uric acid, proteins, etc., contain nitrogen besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Certain organic compounds are very complex and possess very high molecular masses. For instance, molecular masses for proteins range from several thousands to over a million.


ii) Quadri-covalency of carbon:- the carbon present in organic compounds is always quadric-covalent in nature. It combines with other atoms by covalent bonds. This gives rise to the identical behavior of all organic compounds. A carbon atom can link with other carbon atom by single, double or triple bonds. The property of catenation is very strong in organic compounds.


Organic compounds are essentially covalent compounds. They show characteristics of covalent compounds.


a) They are volatile in nature.


b) They have low melting and boiling points.


c) They are generally insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.


d) They are bad conductors of electricity.


e) They do not furnish ions. They show molecular reactions.


In general, the reactions of organic compounds are slow. They never proceed to completion and their yields are generally of low order.


iii) Colour and odour:- Organic compounds possess distinct colour and odour.


iv) Action of heat:- Organic compounds are not stable towards heat. They decompose on heating at high temperature. Some of them decompose on heating leaving a black residue.


v) Combustion:- Organic compounds readily burn in air. They burn with smoky or non-smoky flame. One of the products of combustion is always carbon dioxide.


vi) Homologous series:- Organic compounds have been classified into many classes each having the same functional group. The classes are known as homologous series. The compounds belonging to the same class show similar chemical properties.


vii) Polymerism: - Quite a number of organic compounds exhibit polymerism (when a molecular formula of an organic compound is a simple multiple of the other). For example, benzene (C6H6) is a polymer of acetylene (C2H2).


viii) Isomerism:- Organic compounds show the phenomenon of isomerism

5 years ago

Post Your Answer

More Questions On Organic Chemistry

Ask Experts

Have any Question? Ask Experts
Post Question
 
Answer ‘n’ Earn
Attractive Gift
Vouchers
To Win!!!
Click Here for details
Is there a shortcut for finding the number of isomers for functional hydrocarbons
 
 
Dont go for short cuts. Remember when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different functional group for example an aldehyde and ketone , an alcohol and ether are...
  img
Harishwar one month ago
What is the mechanism of reaction of phenyl chloride with nan3 ?
 
 
Azide salts can decompose with release of large volumes of nitrogen gas as discussed under Applications. Protonation of azide salts gives toxic hydrazoic acid in the presence of strong...
  img
Suraj Prasad 27 days ago
W allylic and benzylic carbanions are said to have sp2 hybridsation?why?
 
 
Allylic and benzylic cabanions are said to have sp2 hybridization because they lone pairs present on carbon involve in delocalization(Resonance). However delocalization is effective if it...
  img
Ramreddy 5 days ago
suppose you have a sample of sulphur containing 1x10 23 sulphur atoms.if a cyclic molecule of sulphur contains S 8 structure then how many molecules of S 8 do you have?
 
 
The sample of sulphur contains sulphur in the cyclic molecule form. 1 molecule contains 8 atoms of sulphur so 10 23 atoms will make (10 23 /8) molecules.
 
DHRUVESH KHANDELWAL 2 months ago
how do polar solvents help in the first step in SN1 mechanism
 
 
TheSN1 reactionis asubstitution reactioninorganic chemistry. "SN" stands fornucleophilic substitutionand the "1" represents the fact that therate-determining...
  img
Sunil Kumar FP 2 months ago
Can you please suggest a good book for physical chemistry level of iit jee ?
 
 
yes my dear friend very simple and you can have excellent command over physical chemistry step (1)read ncert ( 2)read optandon simultaneously with ncert chapter (3)solve problem from...
  img
Sunil Kumar FP 2 months ago
 
what you say about ananya ganguly?
 
harit 2 months ago
View all Questions »