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NIKHIL GARG Grade: 12
        

explain in detail about SN1 and SN2 reactions

6 years ago

Answers : (1)

vikas askiitian expert
510 Points
										

SN1 ) this reaction proceeds  according to these steps


1) hetrolatically cleavage of carbon halogen bond


2)formation of carbocation(rearrangment)


3)formation of new bond


eg) CH3CH2CH2Cl + KOH (aq) = CH3CH(OH)CH3


mechanism


   CH3CH2CH2Cl  =  CH3CH2CH2+       ( 1O CARBOCATION)


 1o carbocation rearranges to 2o by hydride shift , to gain stablity ...


    CH3CH+CH3 + OH- (neucleophile) = CH3CH(OH)CH3


order of reactivity  = benzyl>allyle>3o >2o>1o                  (on the basis of carbocation stablity))


 


SN2)


in this reaction breaking of bonds & formation of new bonds take place samultaneously during a transition state...


in this state neuclephile(OH-) attacks from back side and at the same time carbon halogen bond breaks and product is formed...


this transition state is pentavalent & attaking neuclophile ,halogen are  along axial bond ......no rearrangment occures...


eg)


     CH3CH2CH2Cl + OH- => CH3CH2CH2OH


this reaction favoures  aprotic solvents & strong base ......


order of reactivity = 10>2o>30              (less staric hindered alkyle halide will react fast )

6 years ago
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