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Please explain the following



  • Structure of Atom,

  • Nuclei,

  • Particles within atoms

7 years ago

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The Structure of Atoms


 


An atom consists of a central, almost unimaginably compact and dense nucleus that is surrounded by one or more light-weight electrons. An atom is usually considered to be spherical; so is the nucleus. The radius of a typical atom is on the order of 10-10 m; the radius of a nucleus is 100,000 times smaller, about 10-15 m. An atom is held together by electrical attraction between the electrons, which are electrically negative, and protons, which are electrically positive and reside within the nucleus.


 


 


The Structure Of Nuclei


 


The simplest nucleus, that of common hydrogen, has a single proton. There are two types of other,rare, versions of hydrogen:they differ from the common version by the presence of one or two neutrons (electrically neutral particles) inside the nucleus. Hydrogen, in any of its version, is an example of an element; each element is distinguished from all the others by the number of protons in the nucleus. When there is only one proton, the element is hydrogen. When instead, there are six, the element is carbon. The various versions of each element are called isotopes; they are distinguished by the number of neutrons.


 


            Roughly speaking,the purpose of the neutrons is to glue together the protons, which, being all electrically positive and closely packed,strongly repel each other.


If the neutrons did not provide the glue, the only type of atom that could exist would be common hydrogen; all others would be blown apart.


 


            Such instability can be found in many isotopes of common elements, but thankfully not the elements on which your existence depends. For example, of the 17 isotopes of copper, all but two are unstable and undergo transformation to become other elements. The stable isotopes are the ones used in electronics and other technology.


 


The Structure Of the Particles Within Atoms


 


The electron is simple but perplexingly so. It appears to be infinitesimal in size; that is, it has no size and structure. It is a member of a family of other pointlike particles called leptons; there are six basic types, each with an antiparticle version.


            Protons and neutrons are believed to be different from electrons and the other leptons, because each of the former appears to be a bundle of three simpler particles called “quarka”, up or down.


 

7 years ago

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