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Revision Notes on Chemistry in Everyday Life:

Drugs:

Drugs

Description

Examples

Analgesics

Relieve or decreases the pain without causing unconsciousness. These are also known as “Pain Killers”.

Asprin, Analgin, seridon etc.

Tranquizers/ Antidepressants

These are used for treatment of mental diseases.

Equanil, Calmpose, Tofranil, Barbituric Acid, Cocaine and Iproniazids etc..

Antiseptics

They are applied on living tissues to kill or prevent the growth of micro-organisms.

Dettol, Savlon and Acriflavin etc.

Disinfectants

These are applied on floor, instruments or wall etc. to kill microorganisms but are not safe for application on living tissues.

Phenol

Antimicrobial

These are use to either kill (bactericidal) or stop the growth of diseases causing microorganisms. (bacteriostatic).

Salvarsan, Prontosil, Sulphanilamide,

Bacteriostatic Drugs: Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol

Bactericidal Drugs: Ofloxacin, Aminoglycosides.

Antipyretics

These drugs bring down the body temperature during fever.

Paracetamol, Analgin and  Novalgin.

Antifertility Drugs

Prevent pregnancy in women by controlling menstrual cycle and ovulation.

Norethindrone & Mestranol

Antacids

Used for the treatment of acidity.

Metal hydroxides are generally used as antacids.

Eno, & Milk of magnesia [Mg(OH)2]

Antibiotics

These are the chemical substances which are produced by micro –organisms like bacteria and fungi and are able to kill or stop the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.

Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Ampicillin.

Antihistamins

 These drugs compete with histamine for finding sites of receptors and thus interfere with the natural action of histamine.

Brompheniramine & Terfenadine

   

Artificial Sweetening Agents

Food preservatives:

These are the chemical substances which prevent undesirable changes in flavor, colour, texture of the food during processing and storage of food.

Examples, Table salt, sugar, vegetable oils, sodium benzoate (C6H5COONa) etc

Cleansing Agents

Soaps:

Sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.

Soap

Soaps do not work with hard water as it forms insoluble salts with calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water.

Detergents:

Sodium or potassium salts of sulphonic acids. These can work with hard water also.

Anionic Detergents:  Sodium Slats of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons


Anionic Detergents

Cationic Detergents: Quaternary ammonium salts of ammines with acetates, chlorates or bromates. 

Cationic Detergents

Non-Ionic Detergents: Do not contain any ion.

Non-Ionic Detergents
 

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