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Hydrogen Chloride

 

Table of Content


Discovery of Hydrogen Chloride

structure of Hydrogen Chloride with bond length

Fig. 1: structure of Hydrogen Chloride with bond length

In 1648, Glauber turned into the first person to manufacture hydrogen chloride by warming a blend of basic salt and sulphuric acid in concentrated form. In 1810, Davy demonstrated that it is a compound of chlorine and hydrogen.

                                                                   Δ
       NaCl         +         H2SO4                      →        NaHSO4           + HCl
  Common salt          Conc. Sulphuric                      Sodium            Hydrogen
(Sodium Chloride)              acid                                 bisulphate       Chloride


Manufacture of Hydrogen Chloride

Hydrogen Chloride is set up in the research facility by treating sodium chloride with concentrated sulphuric acid. The reaction blend, comprising of concentrated sulphuric acid and sodium chloride, is initially warmed to 420K.

                                                                    420K
       NaCl         +         H2SO4                          →        NaHSO4           + HCl
  Common salt          Conc. Sulphuric                        Sodium              Hydrogen
(Sodium Chloride)              acid                                bisulphate            Chloride

Sodium bisulphate is acquired as a by result, which is insoluble. Subsequently, sodium bisulphate is further mixed with more sodium chloride and further warmed to a high temperature of around 823K to give dissolvable sodium sulfate and HCl gas.

                                                      823K
     NaHSO4              +    NaCl         →             Na2SO4             + HCl
Sodium bisulphate      Sodium Chloride     Sodium sulphate    Hydrogen chloride

The HCl gas is dried by advancing it through concentrated sulphuric acid. HCl is not dried either over phosphorus pentoxide or brisk lime since it reacts with both of these compounds
 

Properties of HCl

Properties

Chemical Formula CIH
Molar Mass 36.46 g.mol-1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor  Pungent
Density 1.49 g L-1
Melting Point -114.22°C (-173.60°F; 158.93K)
Boiling Point -85.05°C (-121.09°F; 188.10K)
Solubility in water 823 g/L (0°C)
720 g/L (20°C)
561 g/L (60°C)
Solubility Soluble in methanol, ethanol, ether

 

Fig. 2: Properties of hydrogen chloride

Structure of hydrogen chloride

Fig. 3: Structure of hydrogen chloride

  • Hydrogen Chloride is a vapid gas with an impactful pungent odor.

  • It melts to a colorless fluid at 189K and forms a white solid at 159K upon freezing.

  • It is exceedingly soluble in water.

  • An aqueous arrangement of Hydrogen Chloride is called hydrochloric acid.

  • An aqueous arrangement of Hydrogen Chloride experiences ionization to deliver hydronium particles and chloride particles. 

  • This can be shown as below:

An aqueous arrangement of hydrogen chloride experiences ionization to deliver hydronium particles and chloride particles

Fig. 4: An aqueous arrangement of hydrogen chloride experiences ionization to deliver hydronium particles and chloride particles

  • A higher value of dissociation constant (Ka) shows that hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.

  • HCl can dissociate very nearly 100 percent to create hydronium particles; it is viewed as a solid acid.

  • Hydrochloric acid reacts with metals and salts to shape chlorides

  • Example: It reacts with zinc to frame zinc chloride, and with sodium hydroxide to shape sodium chloride.

Reaction of hydrogen chloride with zinc to frame zinc chloride, and with sodium hydroxide to shape sodium chloride

Fig. 5: Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride with zinc to frame zinc chloride, and with sodium hydroxide to shape sodium chloride

  • Hydrochloric acid reacts with iron to shape ferrous chloride.

     Fe       +  2HCl                  FeCl2                  +H2
     Iron                                  Ferrous chloride

  • Hydrochloric acid reacts with ammonia to shape thick white vapour of ammonium chloride.

    NH3      +       HCl                NH4Cl
Ammonium                          Ammonium Chloride

  • Noble metals break down in a concentrated arrangement of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid taken in the proportion of 1:3. This arrangement is known as aqua regia.

  • Hydrochloric acid breaks down salts of weaker acids, for example, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfite.

  • Hydrochloric acid breaks down sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to sodium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water, while it deteriorates sodium sulfite to sodium chloride, sulfur dioxide, and water.

Sodium Carbonate

     Na2CO3                +   2HCl →        2NaCl                + CO2↑                   + H2O
Sodium carbonate                         Sodium chloride    carbon dioxide            Water

Sodium Bicarbonate

     NaHCO3                +   HCl →        NaCl                       + CO2↑                   + H2O
Sodium bicarbonate                      Sodium chloride         carbon dioxide            Water

Sodium Sulphate

     Na2SO3                +   2HCl →        2NaCl                      + SO2↑                   + H2O
Sodium sulphite                            Sodium chloride         Sulphur dioxide          Water


Uses of Hydrochloric Acid

  • It is utilized as a part of the fabrication of chlorine, and chlorides like ammonium chloride. It is likewise utilized as a part of the fabrication of glucose from corn starch.

  • It is utilized as a research facility reagent and in medicines.

  • A saturated arrangement of zinc chloride in dilute hydrochloric acid is utilized to remove the contaminations on a metal surface before welding or electroplating.

A pie chart showing the principal uses of hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid.

Fig. 6: A pie chart showing the principal uses of hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid. 
 

Effects of different HCl concentrations on health

Fig. 7: Effects of different HCl concentrations on health

Watch this Video for more reference

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Hydrogen Chloride

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