Effect of Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrogen bonding has got a very pronounced effects on certain properties of the molecules. They have got effects on
State of the substance
Solubility of the substance
Acidity of different isomers
These can be evident from the following examples.
Example. H2O is a liquid at ordinary temperature while H2S is a gas although both O and S belong to the same group of the periodic table.
Solution: H2O is capable of forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This is possible due to high electronegativity and small size of oxygen. Due to intermolecular H-bonding, molecular association takes place. As a result the effective molecular weight increases and hence the boiling point increases. So H2O is a liquid. But in H2S no hydrogen bonding is possible due to large size and less electronegativity of S. So it’s boiling point is equal to that of an isolated H2S molecule and therefore it is a gas.
Example.Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) has got a higher boiling point than dimethyl ether (CH3-O-CH3) although the molecular weight of both are same.
Solution: Though ethyl alcohol and dimethyl ether have the same molecular weight but in ethyl alcohol the hydrogen of the O-H groups forms intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the OH group in another molecule. But in case of ether the hydrogen is linked to C is not so electronegative to encourage the hydrogen to from hydrogen bonding.
— H — O — H — O — H — O —
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C2H5 C2H5 C2H5
Due to intermolecular H-bonding, ethyl alcohol remains in the associated form and therefore boils at a higher temperature compared to dimethyl ether.