Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity:

This rule deals with the filling of electrons in the equal energy (degenerate) orbitals of the same sub shell (p, d and f). According to this rule,
“Electron pairing in p, d and f orbitals cannot occur until each orbital of a given sub shell contains one electron each or is singly occupied”.
This is due to the fact that electrons being identical in charge, repel each other when present in the same orbital. This repulsion can, however, be minimized if two electrons move as far apart as possible by occupying different degenerate orbitals. All the electrons in a degenerate set of orbitals will have same spin.
Electronic Configuration of Elements: Electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons into different shells, subshells and orbitals of an atom.
Keeping in view the above mentioned rules, electronic configuration of any orbital can be simply represented by the notation]
 
739_Electronic Configuration of Elements.JPG 

Alternatively:

Orbital can be represented by a box and an electron with its direction of spin by arrow. To write the electronic configuration, just we need to know (i) the atomic number (ii) the order in which orbitals are to be filled (iii) maximum number of electrons in a shell, sub–shell or orbital.
  • Each orbital can accommodate two electrons

  • The number of electrons to be accommodated in a subshell is 2 x numbers of degenerate orbitals.

Subshell
Maximum number of electrons
s
2
p
6
d
10
f
14
  • The maximum number of electrons in each shell (K, L, M, N…) is given by 2n2where n is the principal quantum number.

  • The maximum number of orbitals in a shell is given by n2 where n is the principal quantum number.

Importance of Knowing the Electronic Configuration:

The chemical properties of an element are dependent on the relative arrangement of its electrons.
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