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BOHR’S ATOMIC MODEL
Bohr developed a model for hydrogen atom and hydrogen like one–electron species (hydrogenic species). He applied quantum theory in considering the energy of an electron bound to the nucleus.
- An atom consists of a dense nucleus situated at the centre with the electron revolving around it in circular orbits without emitting any energy. The force of attraction between the nucleus and an electron is equal to the centrifugal force of the moving electron.
- Of the finite number of circular orbits around the nucleus, an electron can revolve only in those orbits whose angular momentum (mvr) is an integral multiple of factor h/2π
mvr = nh/2π
Where, m = mass of the electron
v = velocity of the electron
n = orbit number in which electron is present
r = radius of the orbit
- As long as an electron is revolving in an orbit it neither loses nor gains energy. Hence these orbits are called stationary states. Each stationary state is associated with a definite amount of energy and it is also known as energy levels. The greater the distance of the energy level from the nucleus, the more is the energy associated with it. The different energy levels are numbered as 1,2,3,4, (from nucleus onwards) or K, L, M, N etc.
- Ordinarily an electron continues to move in a particular stationary state without losing energy. Such a stable state of the atom is called as ground state or normal state.
- If energy is supplied to an electron, it may jump (excite) instantaneously from lower energy (say 1) to higher energy level (say 2, 3, 4, etc.) by absorbing one or more quanta of energy. This new state of electron is called as excited state. The quantum of energy absorbed is equal to the difference in energies of the two concerned levels.
Since the excited state is less stable, atom will lose it’s energy and come back to the ground state.
Energy absorbed or released in an electron jump, ( E) is given by
E = E2 – E1 = hv
Where E1 and E2 are the energies of the electron in the first and second energy levels, and v is the frequency of radiation absorbed or emitted.
If the energy supplied to hydrogen atom is less than 13.6 eV, it will accept or absorb only those quanta which can take it to a certain higher energy level i.e., all those photons having energy less than or more than a particular energy level will not be absorbed by hydrogen atom. But if energy supplied to hydrogen atom is more than 13.6 eV then all photons are absorbed and excess energy appears as kinetic energy of emitted photo electron.