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Neural Control and Coordination

Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another.

The nervous system is composed of neurons which exercise control by sending electrical signals called nerve impulses. Neurons detect, receive and transmit different kinds of stimuli. The nervous control is speedy and flexible but its effect is localised.


Functions Of Nervous System

The nervous system serves four important functions:-

a) It controls and coordinates the working of all parts of the body.

b) It receives sensory information sent by the sensory receptors about the stimuli acting on them.

c) It stores the impressions of previous stimuli and retrieves (recalls) these impressions to guide the animal in future.

d) It also receives information of the changes in the interior of the body and coordinates the activities of the viscera in the light of these changes.

Main Divisions Of Nervous System

The nervous system is divided into three main parts: central, peripheral and autonomic.

1) Central Nervous System (CNS):- The CNS consists of two parts: The upper large brain situated in the head and the lower long narrow spinal cord located in the neck and trunk.

2) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):- It consists of nerves, which extend between the CNS and the sense organs and body muscles.

3) Autonomic Nervous System (ANS):- It consists of nerves which connect the visceral receptors and effectors

Human Brain

The study of brain in all aspects is called encephalogy.

Location: The brain is situated in the cranial cavity in the skull. The cranial bones protect it from mechanical injury.

Size: The brain forms about 98% of the weight of the whole CNS. The average human brain weighs from 1200 to 1400 gms and has 100 billion neurons.


Morphology: The brain is a soft, whitish, flattened organ. It is divisible into three main regions: forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

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