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Microbes in Human Welfare


Microbes are harmful as well as useful for human beings. Microbes brings lot of welfare for human beings as explained below:

  • Microbes in Vaccination and Antibiotics/Microbes in Industrial Products

The sources of antibiotics as well as vaccines are microbes. On day to day basis we encounter a lot of pathogens that infects our body and brings different diseases to us. But these antibiotics and vaccines helps us in combating these diseases. Antibiotics such as streptomycin, tetracycline are produced from bacteria and fungi.

The first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Flemming was Penicillin which is fungi (Penicillin notatum).

Vaccines contain inactivated microbes for a particular disease in order to develop antibodies. There a vaccines available for cholera, small pox, tuberculosis, hepatitis which are of microbial origin.

  • Microbes in Household Products

Lactobacillus is a bacterium that is found in curd. It is responsible for conversion of milk into curd. This bacterium produces lactic acid that partially digest milk protein and coagulate it to form curd. A small inoculum of curd is needed in milk to begin the process of formation of curd. The curd is rich in Vitamin B12.

The process of formation of alcohol from sugar is known as Fermentation. It is a process that occurs in absence of oxygen. So it is a anaerobic process. The process of fermentation was discovered by Louis Pasteur. The dough used in making of idli, dosa is also formed by fermented bacteria. The bread is also formed by fermented yeast known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A number of different drinks are being produced by the same process of fermentation. Cheese is also produced by fermented bacteria known as Propionibacterium Sharmanii.

  • Microbes in Sewage Treatment

Sewage contain pathogenic microbes and lot of organic matter. The microbes in sewage are pathogenic thus harmful. There are various microbes involves in sewage treatment. Bacteria such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, are involved in fermenting sewage. Pseudomonas is also one of the bacteria involved in breakdown of organic matter.

  • Microbes in Gobar Gas Formation

Gobar gas is formed Anaerobically by Methanobacterium. This bacterium belongs to class of bacteria known as Methanogens. This biogas produced is used as fuel for Cooking and Lightning.

  • Microbes as Biocontrol Agents

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that is used as a biocontrol agent against insects/pests. It produces an endotoxin that paralyzes the gut of the insect/pest that consumes it.Trichoderma is a fungi used in controlling plant pathogens. Baculoviruses are also used to attack insects and arthropods.

  • Some microbes are also used as bio-fertilizers. Rhizobium is a bacteria found in leguminous plants that helps in nitrogen fixation
  • Microbes in Human Body

Human body colonize different microbes in different parts of the body such as Skin, Gut, reproductive tract etc. The most important microbes found in Human Body are Gut Microflora.

The stomach Microflora includes Streptococcus, Staphylococcus etc.These bacteria are able to survive the acidic conditions of the stomach.

The intestinal flora Enterobacteriaceae. These florae unable the development and the utility of the gut.

These microbes help the gut in preventing other microbe’s colonization.They also secrete certain substances that are required for the digestion of the food.

Rhizobium bacteria is found in leguminous plants such as pea, bean, etc.This bacterium helps in absorption of nitrogen required by the plants.

Viruses are used as a vector for transmission of required gene during recombinant DNA Technology.


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