Menstrual Cycle! What is that?

If somebody ask me what is most beautiful creation of universe? I would say…Women! Yes! Women have superpowers of holding whole universe. Their body also works in a different way. Every month women body undergoes certain changes.  These changes prepare women’s body to conceive. Regular periods are directly related to women’s health.

You know baby is formed by fertilization between female’s egg and male’s sperm. Female’s egg (also known as Ova) is released every month.  This process is known as ovulation. But when it doesn’t fertilize with sperm, it leads to bleeding. This is known as menstrual cycle.

This is when we say menstrual cycles are normal…

As a biology student, we should have a good knowledge of human body. You know menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of period. It occurs from 21- 35 days. It lasts from 5- 7 days. Initially when it starts in female (menarche), it can be irregular. Later on, it becomes normal in adult female. At the time when it stops in 50s of age it is known as menopause.

menstural-cycle-1Normal of menstrual cycle is considered in wide range. Sometimes, it’s painful. Other time it is pain free. It can last for 3 day minimum or 5-6 day maximum. Now what’s your normal? We know our body better. We can easily decide it.

Just for your knowledge, I want to tell you one more things that menstrual cycle can become irregular due to contraception, intrauterine devices (IUDs). You can talk to your health care provider for keeping you updated.

Menstrual cycle becomes irregular again at the time of menopause. More care of the health has to be done in this age.

Let’s get more into biology. Menstrual cycle occur in different phases. In each phase certain changes occurs in body. Let me tell you this.

Menstrual cycle – Phases

Biologically menstrual cycle occurs in 4 phases. All you need to know is here…..

menstural-cycle-2Menstrual Phase (day 1-5)

It starts from day 1 of menstruation. This phase remains till the time period ends. What happen during this phase? It’s here…

  • Soft tissues are shed off from uterus which leads to bleeding (menstrual fluid).
  • 10-80 ml of blood loss is considered is normal.
  • Due to contraction of uterus muscles, abdominal cramps can be felt. Its helps in expulsion of the fluid.

Menstrual Phase (day 1-5)Fig A: Menstrual Phase (day 1-5)

Follicular Phase –

Follicular phase (day 1-13)
Fig B: Follicular phase (day 1-13)

This phase comes into play after menstrual period. Otherwise this phase had always been there since day 1.

  • You know it’s also known as proliferative phase/post-menstrual phase or pre ovulatory phase.
  • The story of hormonal changes occurs in this stage. Follicle stimulating hormone- releasing hormone (FSH – RH) is released from hypothalamus. It results in secretion of FSH from pituitary gland.
  • Because of the effect of FSH, primary follicles are converted into graaffian follicles
  • Later on estrogens are secreted from follicular cells of graffian follicles.

Ovulatory Phase –

It occurs on 14th day. It’s also known as fertility phase.  On the middle day of menstrual cycle ovulation occurs.

  • Due to increased turgidity & contraction of smooth muscle fibres around graffian follicle, ovum is released and received by fimbriae of fallopian tube.
  • You know ovum remains active for 2 days.
  • Due to action of LH, ovulation occurs.
  • After the release of ovum, graffian follicle transform into yellow bodies known as corpus luteum. This yellow body temporarily acts as gland and secrets female hormone known as progesterone.

Ovulatory phase (14th day)Fig C: Ovulatory phase (14th day)

Luteal Phase (15th – 18th day)

It lasts up to menstrual phase after ovulation. Endometrium wall of uterus gets ready for implantation.

  • Corpus luteum remains active during this phase.
  • You know what after ovum is released from ovary; it remains in fallopian tube for 24 hours.
  • If no fertilization occurs it is followed by disintegration of ovum.
  • This phase is followed by menstrual phase again.

I hope I helped you to update your knowledge.  Well if you feel like to have more information. Jump in here and here.

Your doubts are welcomed here.

Last but not the least I am Anjali Ahuja, Biology mentor.  It’s always our pleasure to serve the students. We have created very helpful study material for you guys. Yes. Dive in here to take a look.

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