# How does earthing work. Explain in detail.

Sunil Kumar FP
askIITians Faculty 183 Points
10 years ago
earthing is basically uncharging.

Objects with an excess of charge - either positive or negative - can have this chargeremovedby a process known as grounding.Groundingis the process ofremovingthe excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object of substantial size. When a charged object is grounded, the excess charge is balanced by the transfer of electrons between the charged object and a ground. Agroundis simply an object that serves as a seemingly infinite reservoir of electrons; the ground is capable of transferring electrons to or receiving electrons from a charged object in order to neutralize that object. In this last section of Lesson 2, the process of grounding will be discussed.

To begin our discussion of grounding, we will consider the grounding of a negatively charged electroscope. Any negatively charged object has an excess of electrons. If it is to have its chargeremoved, then it will have to lose its excess electrons. Once the excess electrons are removed from the object, there will be equal numbers of protons and electrons within the object and it will have a balance of charge. To remove the excess of electrons from a negatively charged electroscope, the electroscope will have to be connected by a conducting pathway to another object that is capable of receiving those electrons. The other object is the ground. In typical electrostatic experiments and demonstrations, this is simply done by touching the electroscope with one's hand. Upon contact, the excess electrons leave the electroscope and enter the person who touches it. These excess electrons subsequently spread about the surface of the person.

This process of grounding works because excess electrons find each other repulsive. As is always the case, repulsive affects between like-charged electrons forces them to look for a means of spatially separating themselves from each other. This spatial separation is achieved by moving to a larger object that allows a greater surface area over which to spread. Because of the relative size of a person compared to a typical electroscope, the excess electrons (nearly all of them) are capable of reducing the repulsive forces by moving into the person (i.e., the ground). Likecontact charging discussed earlier, grounding is simply another example of charge sharing between two objects. The extent to which an object is willing to share excess charge is proportional to its size. So an effective ground is simply an object with significant enough size to share the overwhelming majority of excess charge.

The previous discussion describes the grounding of a negatively charged electroscope. Electrons were transferred from theelectroscope to the ground. But what if the electroscope is positively charged? How does electron transfer allow an object with an excess of protons to become neutralized? To explore these questions, we will consider the grounding of a positively charged electroscope. A positively charged electroscope must gain electrons in order to acquire an equal number of protons and electrons. By gaining electrons fromthe ground, the electroscope will have a balance of charge and therefore be neutral. Thus, the grounding of a positively charged electroscope involves the transfer of electrons fromthe groundinto the electroscope. This process works because excess positive charge on the electroscope attracts electrons from the ground (in this case, a person). While this may disrupt any balance of charge present on the person, the significantly larger size of the person allows for the excess charge to distance itself further from each other. As in the case of grounding a negatively charged electroscope, the grounding of a positively charged electroscope involves charge sharing. The excess positive charge is shared between the electroscope and the ground. And once again, the extent to which an object is willing to share excess charge is proportional to its size. The person is an effective ground because it has enough size to share the overwhelming majority of excess positive charge.

thanks and regards
sunil kr

shashwat pandey
18 Points
10 years ago
in the concept of electric charge: the earthing is use to prevent electric shocks in electrical devices like:-iron,refrigrator and other devices. when they are in contact with nude wire the electric current flow throgh itbut when we givw earthing i.e take a wire from the device and put into the earth by digging it then the extra electron are flow through the wire into the earth and prevent us from electric shocks....
KuSh TanEJa
36 Points
10 years ago
Earthing is a process used to prevent electric shocks by any appliance,.. as by this process all the static charge present on a body is transferred to the earth by connecting the body to the earth .. it is not a process of charging or discharging but basically reducing the potential of a charged body as equal to that of earth ie. zero n sparking by relative motion in charges after earthing, does not occur.... due to earthing if the system is isolated then charge of the body becomes zero otherwise not.....!!!
Vishal Sharma
34 Points
10 years ago
Electrical earthing is more commonly known as electrical grounding. It works by connecting an appliance or other electrical item to a grounding strap so that shocks can be prevented by sending the any fault current to ground. It is basically used for safety purposes. whenever excessive charge flows through a conductor or an appliance it immediately grounds the excessive charge in order to save the appliances.
Indu
47 Points
10 years ago
Electrical earthing works as simply as grounding an item to stop a continuous flow of electricity. It is basically grounding the building`s electrical components. If there is a fault in a line of a piece of electrical equipment and that line touches the equipment there is an automatic grounding of the current and the circuit will blow.