States of Matter 


States of matter is of prime importance to physicists. Everyday elements and compounds form three physical states of matter, however there are many other states, less common but equally important.
The liquid-crystal state of certain compounds has the properties of solids as well as liquids, and is the basis of electronic displays. More states are obtained when the particles are lighter.
The electrons in metals and ceramics undergo a change due to which electricity is conducted without dissipation.

Thus matter is classified mainly into three categories depending upon its physical state namely solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Three state of matter solid liquid and gas

  • Solids have a definite volume and shape: Definite shape and volume of the solids is result of strong forces of attraction between its constituent particles which keep them together in a fixed position and arrangement.

  • Liquids also have a definite volume but no definite volume: They take shape of the container in which they are placed. This is due to relatively weaker force of attraction among the particles of liquid.

  • Gases have neither a definite volume nor a definite shape: They fill the container completely in which they are placed. This is due to the fact that the force of attraction among the particles of liquids is almost zero and they are free to move independently to each other.

Arrangement of particles in solid, liquid and gaseous oxygen

We will discuss the gaseous and liquid states of matter in detail under following sub-topics

Distiniction Among Different States of Matter 








Definite shape

Indefinite shape

Indefinite shape



Definite Volume

Definite Volume

Indefinite Volume


Inter particular Forces

Strong Inter particular Forces

Comparatively weaker  Inter particular Forces

Inte rparticular forces are negligible


Inter particular Space

Negligible inter particular space

Comparatively large inter particular space

Very large Inter particular space


Particular Motion

Particle motion is restricted to vibratory motion.

Particle motion is very slow

Particle motion is very rapid and also random.


Packing of Particles

Particles are very Closely packed

Particles are loosely packed

Particles are very loosely packed





Highly Compressible



Very High Density 

Low Density 

Very low density 

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