what laws (formulas) govern forces between atoms?

what laws (formulas) govern forces between atoms?


1 Answers

Mukesh Sharma
askIITians Faculty 43 Points
9 years ago
There are four known forces in the universe, three of which are involved, in
  • varying degrees of strength, in holding the atom together, and one of which is involved only in nuclear decay. Electromagnetic Force This force charges attract (positive attracts negative), and like charges repel (positive
  • inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two charged particles, and therefore has an hypothetically infinite range. The attractive
  • nature of the electromagnetic force binds the negatively charged electrons intheir orbital shells around the positively charged nucleus. Strong Force The strong force interacts only with hadrons, so in the specific case of an
  • atom, that means they only interact with nucleons (protons and neutrons). Thisorce acts at extremely short ranges (less than 1 femtometer, or 10-15 m, or on
  • quadrillion of a meter). The strong force falls sharply to zero strength beyond that range. The strong force is 137 times stronger than the electromagnetic force, therefore it's able to bind the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus despite the repellent electromagnetic force felt between the protons. Gravity Gravity affects all particles regardless if they're charged, but interacts with them differently depending on whether or not they have mass. If the particles have mass, the force of gravity causes an attraction between them. Like the electromagnetic force, gravity is inversely proportional
  • to the square of the distance between particles, and therefore has a hypothetical infinite range. Unlike the electromagnetic force, gravity has no repellent component to it. Although every massive particle is effected by every other massive particle through gravity, it is the weakest of the four forces,and plays a very insignificant role in holding the atom together,

Thanks & Regards
Mukesh Sharma
askIITians Faculty

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