what is meant by 'doping' in a semiconductor?

what is meant by 'doping' in a semiconductor?


1 Answers

Anjali Ahuja
askIITians Faculty 240 Points
7 years ago
In semiconductor production, doping intentionally introduces impurities into an extremely pure (also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties
Two of the most important materials silicon can be doped with, are boron (3 valence electrons = 3-valent) and phosphorus (5 valence electrons = 5-valent).
There is basically two types of doping viz. n and p doping.
The 5-valent dopant has an outer electron more than the silicon atoms. Four outer electrons combine with ever one silicon atom, while the fifth electron is free to move and serves as charge carrier.
In contrast to the free electron due to doping with phosphorus, the 3-valent dopant effect is exactly the opposite. The 3-valent dopants can catch an additional outer electron, thus leaving a hole in the valence band of silicon atoms. Therefore the electrons in the valence band become mobile. The holes move in the opposite direction to the movement of the electrons.

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