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need info on bragg’s x-ray crystallography
5 years ago

Answers : (1)

Shashwat Tripathi
25 Points

Bragg's Law refers to the simple equation:

= 2d sinΘ

derived by the English physicists Sir W.H. Bragg and his son Sir W.L. Bragg in 1913 to explain why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (Θ, λ). The variable d is the distance between atomic layers in a crystal, and the variable lambda is the wavelength of the incident X-ray beam (see applet); n is an integer.

This observation is an example of X-ray wave interference (Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen), commonly known as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic structure of crystals postulated for several centuries. The Braggs were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1915 for their work in determining crystal structures beginning with NaCl, ZnS and diamond. Although Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been developed to study the structure of all states of matter with any beam, e.g., ions, electrons, neutrons, and protons, with a wavelength similar to the distance between the atomic or molecular structures of interest.

Friedrich and Knipping first observed Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen in 1912 after a hint from their research advisor, Max von Laue, at the University of Munich. Bragg's Law greatly simplified von Laue's description of X-ray interference. The Braggs used crystals in the reflection geometry to analyze the intensity and wavelengths of X-rays (spectra) generated by different materials. Their apparatus for characterizing X-ray spectra was the Bragg spectrometer.

Laue knew that X-rays had wavelengths on the order of 1 Å. After learning that Paul Ewald's optical theories had approximated the distance between atoms in a crystal by the same length, Laue postulated that X-rays would diffract, by analogy to the diffraction of light from small periodic scratches drawn on a solid surface (an optical diffraction grating). In 1918 Ewald constructed a theory, in a form similar to his optical theory, quantitatively explaining the fundamental physical interactions associated with XRD. Elements of Ewald's eloquent theory continue to be useful for many applications in physics.
4 years ago
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