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(i) Distinguish between flux and slag. (ii) Which metals are generally extracted by the electrolytic processes? What positions thesemetals generally occupy in the periodic table?

(i) Distinguish between flux and slag.
(ii) Which metals are generally extracted by the electrolytic processes? What positions thesemetals generally occupy in the periodic table?

Grade:Upto college level

2 Answers

Sunil Kumar FP
askIITians Faculty 183 Points
7 years ago
(1)difference between flux and slag
Flux is the substance added to to molten metals to bond with impurities that can be readily removed. Slag is the waste material which is removed.
In metallurgy, substance used to remove or prevent the formation of undesirable oxide and other substances during welding. Fluxes are similarly used during the refining of metals. They range from the acid silica to the neutral borax and the basic lime, and they also include rosins and various corrosives. The choice of flux used depends on the materials involved in the given operation.SLAGimpure residue, consisting largely of calcium, iron, aluminum, and magnesium silicate, derived during the process of pig-iron and steel production and during the smelting of metals, such as copper, lead, and nickel

(2)Electrolysis is the breakdown of chemical compounds by the passage of an electric current, with decomposition occuring at the elctrodes. An electrode is a conductor placed in a liquid electrolyte(Liquid that conducts electricity) One of the electrodes is negatively charged-the cathode and the other is positively charged- the anode. Reduction occurs at the cathode and oxidation at the anode.


All metals above iron in the reactivity series (that is, potassium, sodium,calcim, magnesium and aluminium) are extracted by electrolysis. This is because they form too stable compounds that are difficult to reduce using simple reducing agents like carbon monoxide. They have to be extracted by the most powerful reducing agent which is none other than the cathode of the electrochemical cell. Anyways, all other metals can also be extracted from their ores using electrolysis but usually, if simple reduction is possible, it is prefered to electrolysis because of the cost (ELECTROLYSIS USES ELECTRICITY, WHICH IS REALLY EXPENSIVE).



For example:

The aluminium ore is bauxite: Al2O3

Electrolysis of Al2O3:

At the cathode:
4Al3+ + 12 electrons >>>>>4 Al (molten)

At the Anode:
6O2- >>>>>>> 3O2 (gaseous) + 12 electrons
Yash Chourasiya
askIITians Faculty 256 Points
one year ago
Dear Student

(i) Flux is the material or substance thats is added to molten metals to bond with impurities that can be readily removed whereas slag is the waste material which is removed. Fluxes are used during the refining of metals. examples are acid silica,basic lime,rosins etc. The choice of flux depends on the material involved in the given operation

Slag is impure residue that contains large amount of calcium,magnesium silicate,iron,aluminium etc derived during the process of pig iron and steel production and during the smelting of metals such as copper, lead and nickel.

(ii) Electrolysis is the breakdown of chemical compounds by the passage of an electric current, with decomposition occuring at the elctrodes. An electrode is a conductor placed in a liquid electrolyte(Liquid that conducts electricity) One of the electrodes is negatively charged-the cathode and the other is positively charged- the anode. Reduction occurs at the cathode and oxidation at the anode. All metals above iron in the reactivity series (that is, potassium, sodium,calcim, magnesium and aluminium) are extracted by electrolysis. This is because they form too stable compounds that are difficult to reduce using simple reducing agents like carbon monoxide. They have to be extracted by the most powerful reducing agent which is none other than the cathode of the electrochemical cell. Anyways, all other metals can also be extracted from their ores using electrolysis but usually, if simple reduction is possible, it is prefered to electrolysis because of the cost (ELECTROLYSIS USES ELECTRICITY, WHICH IS REALLY EXPENSIVE).


I hope this answer will help you.
Thanks & Regards
Yash Chourasiya

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