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explain s, p , d ,f orbitals in an atom

explain s, p , d ,f orbitals in an atom

Grade:11

1 Answers

Badiuddin askIITians.ismu Expert
148 Points
12 years ago

Dear melwin shaji

 

s ORBITALS
Spherically symmetrical orbitals; that is, φ is a function of R(r) only. For s orbitals,
l=0 and, therefore, electrons in such orbitals have an orbital magnetic quantum
number ml equal to zero.

p ORBITALS
These are orbitals with an angular momentum l equal to 1; for each value of the principal
quantum number n (except for n=1), there will be three p orbitals corresponding
to ml=+1, 0, -1. In a useful convention, these three orbitals, which are
mutually perpendicular to each other, are oriented along the three Cartesian coordinate
axes and are therefore designated as px , py, and pz. They are characterized by
having one nodal plane.

d ORBITALS
Orbitals having an angular momentum l equal to 2 and, therefore, magnetic quantum
numbers, (ml) of +2, +1, 0, -1, -2. These five magnetic quantum numbers
describe the five degenerate d orbitals. In the Cartesian coordinate system, these
orbitals are designated as dz2, dx2 - y2, dxy, dxz, and dyz; the last four of these d orbitals
are characterized by two nodal planes, while the dz2 has surfaces of revolution

f ORBITALS
Orbitals having an angular momentum l equal to 3 and, therefore, magnetic quantum
numbers, ml of +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. These seven magnetic quantum numbers
describe the seven degenerate f orbitals. The f orbitals are characterized by three nodal
planes. They become important in the chemistry of inner transition metals


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Badiuddin

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