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Grade: 11
        


6 years ago

Answers : (2)

Aman Bansal
592 Points
							

Dear Rahul,

The Individual Gas Laws

Historical laws were based on observations named for pioneers in gas experimentation.

The pressure/volume law is named after Robert Boyle, a British chemist, but the same law is called Mariotte’s Law in Europe after Edme Mariotte, a French chemist. Mariotte did similar experiments and reached the same conclusion as Boyle but slightly later. While most U.S. textbooks call the temperature/volume law Charles’ Law after Jacques Alexandre Charles, some give the credit to Joseph Gay-Lussac while others hedge and call it “Charles’ and Gay-Lussac’s Law.” Apparently, Charles did the research first (1787), but Gay-Lussac published first (1802). Credit could also be given to Guillaume Amontons, who, in 1702, invented a thermometer based on gas expansion. It wasn’t a very good thermometer, but his work was a hundred years earlier than Gay-Lussac’s.

The Law of Combining Volumes is sometimes referred to as Gay-Lussac’s Law. Gay-Lussac noted that when gases react to form a gaseous product, the ratio of the gas volumes form small whole numbers (this is similar to Dalton’s Law of Multiple Proportions for similar reasons). Avogadro used this data to support his hypothesis that, if two gases at the same pressure and temperature have the same volume, they must have the same number of particles. This idea lead to Avogadro’s Law, which everybody calls Avogadro’s Law; however, it could just as easily be named Gay-Lussac’s Law.

For most chemistry courses, your instructor will not require that you know which scientist formulated which law, how he did it, and when (especially since there isn’t uniform agreement on who gets credit for which law). All instructors will expect that you understand and remember the principles of all of the laws.

Boyle’s Law, Pressure and Volume

This gas law was the earliest, 1662, because air pumps and manometers were invented before a calibrated thermometer.

If temperature and amount of gas are kept constant, the pressure and volume are inversely proportional. This can be expressed mathematically as

 

 

where P and V are the pressure and volume of a gas and c is a proportionality constant. It is possible to calculate the resulting volume (or pressure) as pressure (or volume) changes if one knows the initial volume and pressure.

 

P1V1=P2V2

In observational terms, if the pressure increases, the volume of a gas must decrease, and vice versa. People who live in the mountains are familiar with this phenomenon. Bags of chips are packaged at close to sea level then shipped up to the mountains where the air pressure is much lower. The air in the sealed bags expands to make little chip filled balloons.

A typical freshman chemistry or physics experiment on Boyle’s Law will have a pressure gauge connected to a large syringe. Students change the volume of air trapped in the syringe by depressing or pulling out the plunger, which changes the pressure of the gas trapped inside. A graph of pressure and the reciprocal of the volume of the gas will be a straight line. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Robert Boyle wasn’t lucky enough to have digital pressure gauges and plastic tubing. He performed his gas experiments using air trapped in a u-shaped glass tube by a mercury plug. Pouring additional mercury into the tube increased the pressure and decreased the volume of the trapped gas.

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Aman Bansal

Askiitian Expert

6 years ago
Aman Bansal
592 Points
							

Dear Rahul,

  A gas is a states of matter that expands to fill the entire level of the container and takes the nature of the container.When trading with liquids and solids, as long as you don’t unintentionally melt or boil things, the quantity of a sample doesn’t vary a large amount with temperature or pressure. With gases, as they don’t have Specific Weight, the size of the sample changes like pressure and temperature change, even if the quantity (mass) of gas does not.  4 variables are needed to specify the size of a sample of gas: mass/moles, volume, temperature and pressure. that pressure is force per unit area. In the case of a gas it is the strength that a gas exerts on the walls of its container.

Gases are very difficult to handle; they tend to leak out. They are hard to weigh, chiefly because it is really hard to get all of the gas out so that you can weigh the empty jug. Early experimenters calculated changes in the other variables and hoped that the collection remain constant (no leaks) or relied on Stoichiometric principle to deduce the amount of gas. measure pressure was somewhat tricky, but not nearly as solid as measuring the temperature. Early thermometers were very unreliable and the earliest, called thermo scope did not have a numerical scale. momentous breakthrough in kind gas behavior stalled until Fahrenheit proposed a Standardized thermometer scale in the in the early hours 1700s. 
                                                        
     As a good number gases are not effortless to study unswervingly with our mind, they are described from beginning to end the use of four corporeal properties or macroscopic self: pressure, volume, amount of particles (chemists group them by moles) as well as temperature. These four uniqueness were cyclically observed by scientists such as Robert Boyle, Jacques Charles, John Dalton, Joseph Gay-Lussac and Amedeo Avogadro considered for a alternative of gases in a concoction of setting. Their complete studies at last lead to a geometric bond among these properties articulated by the ideal gas law (see simplified model sector beneath).

Gas particles are widely separated from one a new, and as such are not while strongly intermolecular bond to the same degree as liquids or solids. These intermolecular forces result from electrostatic interactions stuck between each gas particle. Like electric areas of different gas particles fend off, while oppositely charged regions of unlike gas particles attract one a new; gases that contain everlastingly charged ions are branded as plasmas..        

 

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Thanks

Aman Bansal

Askiitian Expert

6 years ago
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