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9 years ago

Answers : (1)

AKASH GOYAL AskiitiansExpert-IITD
419 Points

Dear Ashish

The three dimensional space around the nucleus in an atom where the probability of finding an electron is maximum ( around 95 % ) is called an atomic orbital.

If a three dimensional surface is drawn enveloping the space where  95 % of probability of finding an electron exists, it termed the shape of that atomic orbital.  With the help of Schrodinger wave equation the values of are calculated. The variation of 2  with distance  'r' from the nucleus can be estimated and when these values are plotted as a function of 'r' we get the physical picture of the shape of atomic orbital. The size of the  orbital incraeses in the order 1s < 2s < 3s.

The orbital in which the elctrons having quantum numbers n=2 and l =1 are present is called a 2p orbital. Similarly the orbital having electrons with quantum number n =3 and l=1 is called 3p orbital . All the p orbitals have the common azimuthal quantum number value l=1 and n can have values 2,3,4,... there are three p-orbitals in each principal quantum number starting from 2 . These are mutually perpendicular  to each other and oriented along the three axes. Each p- orbital is of dumb- bell shape . Using the values of 2  when the radial probability distribution for 2px orbital can be represented in figure , the probability of finding an electron at the nucleus is zero. At a certain distance from the nuclues the probability is maximum.


 This is marked ' m' in the curve and darkly shaded area in the change cloud diagram . For a Px orbital, yz plane is the nodal plane. On either side of the nodal plane, there are two spheroidal lobes along the x- axis. Similarly P y orbital is along the y axis and its nodal plane is in xz plane . Pz orbital is along the z axis  with xy plane as its nodal plane.



All the best.                                                           


AskiitiansExpert-IIT Delhi


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9 years ago
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