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        Explain log
how to use it?
8 years ago

							The logarithm (or log) of a number to a given base is the power to which the base must be raised in order to produce that number.
the logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 10 to the power of 3 is 1000. $\log_b(x y) = \log_b x + \log_b y. \,$ $\log_b \left (\frac x y \right) = \log_b x - \log_b y. \,$ $\log_b(x^p) = p \log_b x. \,$ $\log_b(\sqrt[p]x) = \frac {\log_b x}p. \,$lets take an example now,suppose we want to find the value of 3.055*6.225lets take log to the base 10 .log ( a * b ) = log a + log b==> log(1.055 * 6.225) = log 3.055 + log 6.225to take log we take the number of integers before the decimal point and subtract it by 1.since there is 1 element before the decimal point it becomes 1-1 = 0therfore we write the value of log as 0. and then the number's log value.then in the log table we check for '30' in the 5th vertical column which gives the log of 3.05 since there is another 5 after this 3.05 , after the 10the vertical column there are small columns which have some values under the numbers 0-9.... check for the number 5 in this and add it to the value you found in 3.05therefore log 3.05 = 0.4843log 3.055 = 0.4850similarly find for the other numberlog 6.22 = log of 62 in the 2nd column (under the value 2)             = 0.7938log 6.225 = 0.7941so now the values are 0.4850 and 0.7941so now add both of them that gives you the log value.so log ( 3.055 * 6.225 ) = 0.7941 + 0.4850 = 1.2791so that is the log value.now try this for yourself :find the log of (i) 5.226 * 41.25                     (ii) 22.47 * 33.11Please approve !

8 years ago
							Two kinds of logarithms are often used in chemistry:  common (or  Briggian) logarithms and natural (or Napierian) logarithms.  The power  to which a base of 10 must be raised to obtain a number is called the  common logarithm (log) of the number.  The power to which the base e (e = 2.718281828.......) must be raised to obtain a number is called the natural logarithm (ln) of the number.
In simpler terms, my 8th grade math teacher always told me:  LOGS ARE EXPONENTS!! What did she mean by that?

Using log10 ("log to the base 10"):  log10100 = 2 is equivalent to 102 = 100 where 10 is the base, 2 is the logarithm (i.e., the exponent  or power) and 100 is the number.

Using natural logs (loge or ln):  Carrying all numbers to 5 significant figures, ln 30 = 3.4012 is equivalent to e3.4012 = 30 or 2.71833.4012 = 30

Many equations used in  chemistry were derived using calculus, and these often involved natural  logarithms. The relationship between ln x and log x is: ln x = 2.303 log x Why 2.303?  Let's use x = 10 and find out for ourselves. Rearranging, we have (ln 10)/(log 10) = number. We can easily calculate that ln 10 = 2.302585093... or 2.303 and log 10 = 1. So, the number has to be 2.303. Voila!

Historical note:  Before  calculators, we used slide rules (a tool based on logarithms) to do  calculations requiring 3 significant figures.  If we needed more than 3  signficant figures, we pulled out our lengthy logarithm tables.  Anyway,  enough history......

The rest of this mini-presentation will concentrate on logarithms to the  base 10 (or logs).  One use of logs in chemistry involves pH, where pH =  -log10 of the hydrogen ion concentration.
FINDING LOGARITHMS
Here are some simple examples of logs.

NumberExponential ExpressionLogarithm

1000
103
3

100
102
2

10
101
1

1
100
0

1/10 = 0.1
10-1
-1

1/100 = 0.01
10-2
-2

1/1000 = 0.001
10-3
-3

To find the logarithm of a number other than a power of 10, you need to  use your scientific calculator or pull out a logarithm table (if they  still exist).   On most calculators, you obtain the log (or ln) of a  number by

entering the number, then
pressing the log (or ln) button.

Example 1: log 5.43 x 1010 = 10.73479983...... (way too many significant figures)

Example 2:  log 2.7 x 10-8 = -7.568636236...... (too many sig. figs.)

So, let's look at the logarithm more closely and figure out how to  determine the correct number of significant figures it should have.
For any log, the number to the left of the decimal point is called the characteristic, and the number to the right of the decimal point is called the mantissa.   The characteristic only locates the decimal point of the number, so it  is usually not included when determining the number of significant  figures.  The mantissa has as many significant figures as the number  whose log was found.  So in the above examples:

Example 1: log 5.43 x 1010 = 10.735   The number has 3 significant figures, but its log ends up with 5  significant figures, since the mantissa has 3 and the characteristic has  2.

Example 2: log  2.7 x 10-8 = -7.57  The number has 2 significant figures, but its log ends up with 3 significant figures.

Natural logarithms work in the same way:

Example 3: ln 3.95 x 106 = 15.18922614... = 15.189

Application to pH problems:
pH = -log (hydrogen ion concentration) = -log [H+]

Example 4: What is the pH of an aqueous solution when the concentration of hydrogen ion is 5.0 x 10-4 M?
pH = -log [H+] = -log (5.0 x 10-4) = - (-3.30) = 3.30

FINDING ANTILOGARITHMS (also called Inverse Logarithm)
Sometimes we know the logarithm (or ln) of a number and must work  backwards to find the number itself.  This is called finding the  antilogarithm or inverse logarithm of the number. To do this using most  simple scientific calculators,

enter the number,
press the inverse (inv) or shift button, then
press the log (or ln) button.  It might also be labeled the 10x (or ex) button.

Example 5: log x = 4.203; so, x = inverse log of 4.203 = 15958.79147..... (too many significant figures) There are three significant figures in the mantissa of the log, so  the number has 3 significant figures.  The answer to the correct number  of significant figures is 1.60 x 104.

Example 6:  log x = -15.3; so, x = inv log (-15.3) = 5.011872336... x 10-16 = 5 x 10-16 (1 significant figure)

Natural logarithms work in the same way:

Example 7: ln x = 2.56; so, x  = inv ln (2.56) = 12.93581732... = 13 (2 sig. fig.)

Application to pH problems:
pH = -log (hydrogen ion concentration) = -log [H+]

Example 8: What is the concentration of the hydrogen ion concentration in an aqueous solution with pH = 13.22?

pH = -log [H+] = 13.22 log [H+] = -13.22 [H+] = inv log (-13.22) [H+] = 6.0 x 10-14 M (2 sig. fig.)

CALCULATIONS INVOLVING LOGARITHMS
Because logarithms are exponents, mathematical operations involving them follow the same rules as those for exponents.

Common LogarithmNatural Logarithm

log xy = log x + log y
ln xy = ln x + ln y

log x/y = log x - log y
ln x/y = ln x - ln y

log xy = y log x
ln xy = y ln x

log = log x1/y = (1/y )log x
ln = ln x1/y =(1/y)ln x

Example 9: log 5.0 x 106 = log 5.0 + log 106 = 0.70 + 6 = 6.70 Hint:  This is an easy way to estimate the log of a number in scientific notation!
Example 10: log (154/25) = log 154 - log 25 = 2.188 - 1.40 = 0.788 = 0.79 (2 sig. fig.)
Example 11: log (5.46 x 10-3)6 = 6 log 5.46 x 10-3 = 6 x (-2.263) = -13.58
Example 12: log (4.35)1/4 = 1/4 log 4.35 = 0.160

QUIZ: Give the correct answer to the correct number of significant figures.

Question 1
log 23.0 = ?

Question 2
What is the pH of an aqueous solution in which [H+] = 2.7 x 10-3 M?

Question 3
Find x if log x = 10.23.

Question 4
If the pH of an aqueous solution is 6.52, what is the concentration of the hydrogen ion?

Question 5
log (1.2 x 106)3 = ?

Answers:  (1) 1.362  (2) 2.57   (3) 1.7 x 1010 (4) 3.0 x 10-7 M  (5) 18.24

8 years ago
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