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CBSE Class 10 Science Revision Notes for Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts 

 

The revision notes for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts are the best study guide for exam preparation. These notes help you understand every concept introduced in the chapter. Refer to our online revision notes for free and revise the Acids, Bases and Salts chapter in just 20 minutes. This means you can revise the whole chapter quickly before exams and brush up on the concepts of this chapter. The notes are created by askIITians Science faculty who are well-versed with the CBSE syllabus and exam guidelines. 

 

The main topics included in CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts are chemical properties of acids and bases, how acids and bases react with metals, the reaction of acids and bases with each other, the reaction of acids with metal oxides, common properties of acids and bases, dilution of acids, ions present in an acidic solution, ions present in basic solutions, pH, salts, common salt, bleaching powder, baking soda, washing soda, and plaster of Paris. We have mentioned details about all these topics in our revision notes for CBSE. 

Revision Notes for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts 

 

Do you know that the taste of the food is due to the presence of acids and bases in them?

Acids

  • Acids are defined as the one which produces hydrogen ions in water. 

  • For Example, Sulphuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid etc.

  • They give a sour taste.

  • Acids turn blue litmus to red. This is used as a confirmation test for the presence of acid.

  • When acids react with metals, gases are evolved.

Reactions with Acids

1. Reaction of Acid with Metal

Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas

Mg + H2SO4 → H2 + Mg SO4

 

2. Reaction of Acid with Carbonates

Na2 CO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → 2NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

 

3. Reaction of Acid with Bicarbonates

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

 

Similarity between Acids and Bases

  • Both acids and bases react with water. They produce ions in water

  • Both acids and bases act as electrolytes, so are good conductors of electricity.

  • Both of them change the colour of the litmus paper.

Classification of Acids

 

Acids are classified as Organic Acids and Mineral Acids. Acids that are derived from plants and animals are known as Organic Acids.

For Example, Citric Acid from fruit. Mineral acids are inorganic acids such as Sulphuric Acid. They are dangerous to be used, so need more precautions.

Acids are also classified as Strong Acids or Weak Acids. A strong acid is an acid that completely dissociates into ions in aqueous solutions. For Example, Sulphuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid.

A weak acid is one that does not dissociate completely into ions in aqueous solutions. For Example, Acetic Acid.

Acids can also be as Dilute Acid and Concentrated Acids. The one which has a low concentration of acids in an aqueous solution are known as Dilute Acids whereas the one which has a high concentration of acids in an aqueous solution are known as Concentrated Acids.

It is advisable to add acid to water and not vice versa because a large amount of heat is released if water is added to acid. This released heat is large enough to cause harm.

Acids can also be classified based on the number of hydrogen ions. Monoprotic acid is the one that gives one mole of hydrogen ions per mole of acid, such as HCl. Diprotic Acid is one that produces two moles of hydrogen ions per mole of acid. For Example, H2SO4.

Bases

  • Bases are the one that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions. 

  • Bases that are water-soluble are known as Alkalis.

  • They turn red litmus to blue.

  • They have a bitter taste.

  • They also produced carbon dioxide when reacted with carbonates.

  • They also evolved hydrogen gas when bases react with metals.

Reactions of Bases

 

1. Reaction with Metals

Base reacts with metals and produces hydrogen gas.

2NaOH + Zn → Na2 → Na2ZnO2 + H2

 

2. Reaction with Acids

Base reacts with acids to form salts. For Example,

KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O

 

3. Reaction with Non-metallic Oxides

Base reacts with non-metallic oxides to form salt and water.

2NaOH + CO2 → CO2­ → Na2CO3 + H2O

 

Classification of Bases

Bases are classified as Strong Base and Weak Base. A strong base is one that dissociates completely into its ions in an aqueous solution. For Example, NaOH.

A weak base is one that does not dissociate completely into its ions in aqueous solutions. For Example, Ammonium Hydroxide, NH4OH

Bases are also classified as Dilute Base and Concentrated Base. The solution which has a low concentration of base in an aqueous solution is defined as Dilute Base whereas the one which has a high concentration of base in an aqueous solution is known as a Concentrated Base.

 

Strength of Acid or Base Solutions

 

The dissociation constant of a weak acid or weak base can be represented as-

Suppose HA is a weak acid, then dissociation constant is represented as-

Strength of an acid or base can be determined using a pH scale. It is a scale to measure the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The p stands for ‘potenz’, it is a German word that means power.

  • If pH is equal to 7, it means the solution is neutral.

  • If pH is greater than 7 means alkaline solution.

  • If pH is less than 7 means the solution is acidic.

Fig.1. pH scale

Importance of pH

  • Human body works at a pH of about 7.4.

  • The stomach has a pH of about 2 due to the presence of hydrochloric acid in it. It is needed for the activation of pepsin protein required for protein digestion.

  • When we eat food containing sugar, then the bacteria present in our mouth break down the sugar to form acids. This acid lowers the pH in the mouth. Tooth decay starts when the pH of acid formed in the mouth falls below 5.5. This is because then the acid becomes strong enough to attack the enamel of our teeth and corrode it. This sets in tooth decay. The best way to prevent tooth decay is to clean the mouth thoroughly after eating food.

  • Many animals and plants protect themselves from enemies by injecting painful and irritating acids and bases into their skin.

    • When a honey bee stings a person, it injects an acidic liquid into the skin. Rubbing with a mild base like baking soda solution on the stung area of the skin gives relief.

    • When a wasp stings, it injects an alkaline liquid into the skin. Then rubbing with a mild acid like vinegar on the stung area of the skin gives relief.

  • Soil pH and plant growth: Most plants grow best when the pH of the soil is close to 7. If the soil is too acidic or basic, the plants grow badly or do not grow at all. The soil pH is also affected by the use of chemical fertilisers in the field. Chemicals can be added to soil to adjust its pH and make it suitable for growing plants. If the soil is too acidic then it is treated with materials like quicklime or slaked lime. If the soil is too alkaline then alkalinity can be reduced by adding decaying organic matter.

Salts

 

When acid and base neutralise, salts are formed. Strong acid and strong base combine to form neutral salt.

NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O

Eq.1. Formation of Neutral Salt

 

Strong acid and weak base combine to form acidic salt. For Example, Hydrochloric Acid and ammonium hydroxide combine to form ammonium chloride. Other examples, are sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen sulphate etc.

HCl + NH4OH → NH4Cl + H2O

Eq.2. Formation of Acidic Salt

 

Similarly, weak acid and strong base combine to form basic salt. For Example, Acetic Acid and sodium hydroxide combine to form sodium acetate. Other examples are calcium carbonate, potassium cyanide etc.

CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O

Eq.3. Formation of Basic Salt

The most common salt is table salt or sodium chloride (NaCl).

 

Indicators

 

They are the substances that indicate the acidic or basic nature of the solution using colour change. For Example, litmus solution, methyl orange, phenolphthalein, methyl red etc. Acids convert blue litmus paper red in colour. Bases turn red litmus blue. Phenolphthalein remains colourless in presence of acids but turns pink in presence of bases.

 

Some Important Chemical Compounds and their uses

 

 Chemical Compounds

Preparation

Uses

Common Salt (NaCl)

(Sodium Chloride)

1. NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O

2. From seawater by evaporation

3. From underground deposit

{Large crystals of common salt are found in underground deposits which are brown due to the presence of impurities in them. It is mined from underground deposits like coal.}

1. Raw material for making large numbers of useful chemicals in industry. Eg: NaOH (caustic soda), Na2CO3 (washing soda), NaHCO3 (baking soda).

2. Preservative in a pickle and curing meat and fish.

3. To melt ice and clear roads in winters in cold countries.

4. Used in the manufacturing of soap.

Caustic Soda (NaOH)

(Sodium Hydroxide)

Passing electricity through a concentrated solution of NaCl (called 'brine')

2NaCl (Brine) + 2H2O2NaOH (Caustic Soda) + Cl2 + H2

At anode (+ve electrode): Cl2 is produced

At the cathode (-ve electrode): H2 is produced

It is called a chloro-alkali process because products formed are chlorine (Chloro) and NaOH (alkali).

Uses of H2

1. Hydrogenation of oil to get vegetable ghee (margarine)

2. To make ammonia for fertilisers

3. In fuel for rockets.

Uses of Cl2

1. In water treatment

2. To clean water in swimming pools

3. To make plastic, e.g. PVC

4. To make CFCs, chloroform, dyes etc.

Uses of NaOH

1. Used in making soap and detergent.

2. Used in manufacturing of paper

3. Degreasing metals

4. Refining oil

5. Making dyes and bleaches

Uses of HCl

1. Cleaning steel

2. Preparation of chloride, e.g. NH4Cl

3. In making medicines and cosmetics

4. In making plastics, PVC etc.

Baking Soda (NaHCO3)

(Sodium Hydrogencarbonate)

NaCl + NH3 + H2O + CO2 → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

Properties

Action of Heat:

1. Used as an antacid in medicine to remove the acidity of the stomach

2. Used in making baking powder (Basic soda + tartaric acid)

NaHCO3 + H⊕ (from mild acid) → Na⊕ (sodium salt of acid) + CO­2 + H2O

The CO2 produced during the process gets trapped in wet dough and bubbles out slowly to make the cake 'rise' so that it becomes soft and spongy.

Tartaric acid neutralises it, and so it has a pleasant taste.

3. Used in soda-acid fire extinguisher

Washing Soda (Na2CO3.10H2O)

(Sodium Carbonate)

Na2CO3 + 10 H2O → Na2CO3.10H2O

Preparation of Na2CO3

{NaCl + NH3 + H2O + CO2   NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O}

1. Used in glass, soap and paper industries

2. Used in manufacturing of sodium compounds such as Borax

3. Cleaning agent for domestic purpose

4. Remove permanent hardness of water

Bleaching Powder (CaOCl2)

Calcium Oxychloride

Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O

Slaked Lime     Calcium Oxychloride

Properties

CaOCl2 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + Cl2 + H2O

The Cl2 produced by the action of dilute acid acts as a bleaching agent.

1. For bleaching cotton and linen in the textile industry, for bleaching wood pulp in paper factories, for bleaching washed clothes in laundry

2. The oxidising agent in chemical industries

3. Disinfecting drinking water

Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) (CaSO4.1/2 H2O)

(Calcium Sulphate Hemihydrate)

CaSO4.H2O (Plaster of Paris) +3/2 H2O

* Heating of gypsum should not be done above 100oC as above that temperature, the water of crystallisation will be eliminated and anhydrous CaSO4 will be obtained. This anhydrous CaSO4 is known as Dead Burnt Plaster.

* CaSO4.1/2 H2O means that two molecules of CaSO4 share one molecule of water.

Properties

POP has a remarkable property of setting into a hard mass on wetting with water, as gypsum is formed.

CaSO4.1/2 H2O (P.O.P) + 1/2 H2O → CaSO4.2H2O (Gypsum set as hard mass)

Hence, P.O.P should be stored in moisture-proof containers as moisture can cause the slow setting of P.O.P by hydrating it.                                           

1. Used in hospital for setting fractured bones in the right position to ensure correct healing.

2. Making toys, decorative materials, cheap ornaments, and casts of statues.

3. Used as fire-proofing material

4. Used in chemistry labs for setting air gaps in apparatus.

5. Making smooth surfaces, such as For making ornamental designs on ceilings of houses and other buildings

 

CBSE Class 10 Science Revision Notes for Acids, Bases and Salts FAQs

 

1. How online revision notes for Acids, Bases and Salts can help me prepare for exams? 

 

  • The revision notes for Acids, Bases and Salts are available on the askIITians websites for free. 
  • These notes include pointwise explanations for all the topics included in the NCERT Chapter.
  • The notes are based on the latest CBSE syllabus for Class 10 Science. 
  • The notes include easy to understand language and help in solidifying your conceptual understanding. 
  • With these notes, you can revise the whole chapter of Acids, Bases and Salts in just 20 minutes. 

 

2. Where can I find the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts?

The askIITians Science experts have prepared NCERT Solutions for Acids, Bases and Salts with complete explanations. You can download these solutions from our website for free. These solutions are based on the latest CBSE exam pattern and syllabus for class 10 Science. Referring to them will solidify your understanding of the chapter topics and make it easier for you to prepare for the board exam. 

 

3. How to study the Acids, Bases and Salts chapter to get full marks in the exam? 

  • Read the NCERT chapter carefully. Underline all important definitions. 
  • Use our revision notes as a guide for the chapter to understand the concepts included in it. 
  • Refer to our NCERT Solutions and prepare answers for every question in the chapter. 
  • Use flashcards, mind maps, practice worksheets to memorise the chemical reactions included in this chapter. 

 

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