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1) Define algorithm. What are its properties?

2) Give atleast four real life examples where we use stack operations.

3) Differentiate full and complete binary trees.

4) What are the demerits of recursion?

1. a) What are the characteristics of an algorithm? Describe with an example.

b) Write an algorithm to implement any three operations of a queue.

2. a) Describe the two methods of representing a graph.

b) Design an algorithm to generate all prime numbers between 10 and 20.

3. a) Trace out the algorithm Max Min on a data set containing atleast 8 elements.

b) Design an algorithm to sort the elements using merge sort.

4. What are preorder, Inorder, postorder traversals of a binary tree? Design recursion algorithms to implement them and explain with the help of an example.

5. a) What is binary search? Develop a recursive algorithm for binary search.

b) What are the two methods of representing a binary tree?

6. a) Design an algorithm to check whether a given string is a palindrome or not.

b) Trace out the algorithm quick sort on the data set {1, 5, 7, 19, 15, 8, 9, 10}.

7. a) What is validation and testing of algorithms?

b) Explain the terms with examples

i) Finite graph

ii) Isolated and pendent vertices

iii) NULL graph

iv) Path.

8. Write short notes on:

a) Debugging

b) The need for recursion

c) Incidence matrix.

8 years ago

Answers : (1)

Aman Bansal
592 Points

Dear Bhupender,


1, a step-by-step method of solving a problem or making decisions, as in making a diagnosis.
2. an established mechanical procedure for solving certain mathematical problems.

Properities of the algorithm 
) Finiteness: - an algorithm terminates after a finite numbers of steps. 

2) Definiteness: - each step in algorithm is unambiguous. This means that the action specified by the step cannot be interpreted (explain the meaning of) in multiple ways & can be performed without any confusion. 

3) Input:- an algorithm accepts zero or more inputs 

4) Output:- it produces at least one output. 

5) Effectiveness:- it consists of basic instructions that are realizable. This means that the instructions can be performed by using the given inputs in a finite amount of time.

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Aman Bansal

Askiitian Expert

8 years ago
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