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Define the term solution. How many types of solutions are formed? Write briefly about each type with an example.

Define the term solution. How many types of solutions are formed? Write briefly about each type with an example.


1 Answers

Sunil Kumar FP
askIITians Faculty 183 Points
7 years ago
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent
Gaseous solutions
If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air (oxygen and other gases dissolved in nitrogen). Since interactions between molecules play almost no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not even classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures.
Liquid solutions
Gas in liquid:Oxygen in water
Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction (formation of ions). Note also that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution; the dissolved gas itself is not visible since it is dissolved on a molecular level.
Liquid in liquid:

The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant. (Homogenization of solutions)
Alcoholic beverages are basically solutions of ethanol in water.

Solid in liquid:

Sucrose (table sugar) in water
Sodium chloride (NaCl) (table salt) or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions.
Solid solutions
If the solvent is a solid, then gases, liquids and solids can be dissolved.

Gas in solids:

Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals, especially in palladium; this is studied as a means of hydrogen storage.

Liquid in solid:

Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam
Hexane in paraffin wax

Solid in solid:

Steel, basically a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms.
Alloys like bronze and many others.
Polymers containing plasticizers.

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