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Grade: 12

                        

Briefly discuss the following terms as used in chemical bonding . a)Intermolecular forces b)Dispersion(London forces) c)Van der waal forces d)Dipole forces e)Hydrogen bonds f)Polar covalent bond g)Non-polar covalent bond h)Hybridization of atomic orbitals

one month ago

Answers : (1)

Pawan Prajapati
askIITians Faculty
3407 Points
							Answer ::
a)
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between atoms, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between atoms and other types of neighboring particles, e.g. atoms or ions. Intermolecular forces are weak

b). The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction.

c). Van der Waals forces include attraction and repulsions between atoms, molecules, and surfaces, as well as other intermolecular forces.

d).Dipole-dipole forces are attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule. Dipole-dipole forces have strengths that range from 5 kJ to 20 kJ per mole.

e). Hydrogen bonding, interaction involving a hydrogen atom located between a pair of other atoms having a high affinity for electrons; such a bond is weaker than an ionic bond or covalent bond but stronger than van der Waals forces. Hydrogen bonds can exist between atoms in different molecules or in parts of the same molecule.

f). Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms. In a polar covalent bond, the electrons are not equally shared because one atom spends more time with the electrons than the other atom.

g).A non-polar covalent bond is a type of chemical bond that is formed when electrons are shared equally between two atoms. ... It further means that there is no separation of charges between the two atoms or both the atoms have similar electronegativity.

h).In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals are useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties and are symmetrically disposed in space.

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one month ago
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